After 500 years, Catalonia’s haggadahs come home






After 500 years, Catalonia’s haggadahs come home
In the 14th Century, Catalonia was the home of one of the most cultured Jewish communities in the world. It is here that some of the most famous illuminated haggadahs were commissioned. However, when in 1492, the Catholic monarchs issued the Alhambra Decree, Jews were officially expelled from the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon, and the Jews there had two choices: either convert to Catholicism, or flee.
Although Catalonia’s haggadahs left with their Jewish owners in 1492, from March 26 through July 5 some of these famous liturgical works will be on show at “home” in an exhibit at the Barcelona
Museum of History.
Illuminated manuscripts are texts written by hand, and decorated with enlarged letters, ornamental borders, and miniature illustrations. Originally, only those manuscripts that were ornamented with
gold and silver were considered “illuminated” or “lit up.” In modern scholarship, any manuscript that is embellished, from both the Islamic and Western traditions, is considered illuminated.
The oldest illuminated manuscripts originated in Italy and the Eastern Roman Empire in around
400 CE. They were preserved by the monastic orders, whose monks copied them. Most of the illuminated manuscripts that have survived are from the Middle Ages and initially these manuscripts were created for religious use.
In the 1100s, the ancient classics, and texts about science, were also produced in the Iberian
Peninsula. Precise illustrations were needed to accompany this written material and these texts were used to teach in the first universities of Western Europe.
Beginning in the 13th century, secular manuscripts were also illuminated. Wealthy patrons commissioned manuscripts for their personal libraries. This included some of Catalonia’s most prominent Jews.
Medieval illuminated manuscripts were written on vellum and the whole page was planned in advance on parchment cut to the desired size. Lines were lightly ruled with a pointed stick and then the words were added, written with a quill pen or sharpened reed, and ink. Blank space was reserved for the illustrations and decorations. The design for the drawings was delineated on a wax tablet, then traced onto the vellum, sometimes with pinpricks.

There was an order to creating illuminations: First, the drawing was outlined with a silver wire, then gold leaf was glued to the parchment. Gold was applied before the drawing was painted because
gold would stick to any paint, potentially ruining the design. The process of gluing the gold leaf included polishing (burnishing) the gold once the glue was dry. This vigorous action could smudge
any paint that was already there. Once the gold leaf was in place, natural pigments, made from plants, insects, and minerals, were applied with brushes to the rest of the design. Finally, the
decorative border was painted.
Up to the 1300s, the painstakingly writing and drawing of each manuscript was both done by monks. In the 14th Century, the text was written by a scribe, and the illustrations were executed by secular artists. Secular workshops were created, with artisans so skilled, that by the 15th Century the monasteries outsourced their work to them. In France, much of the artistic work for the manuscripts was done in these workshops by women.
The illuminated manuscripts commissioned by the Catalan Jews were of the Gothic style, which developed in the 1100s. It was naturalistic, showing emotions in faces and gestures, leaves
cascading along the borders of the page, sketches in the margins and grotesques (now called drolleries). The haggadahs on show in Barcelona were collaborative projects between Jewish
scribes and Christian artists.
When Charlemagne completed his reconquest of Catalonia from the Muslims in 1150 CE, Catholic
censors began reviewing Jewish books. Usually recent converts from Judaism to Catholicism, these censors knew how to read the books and were tasked with finding blasphemous passages.
Some of the Catalan haggadahs bear the inscription of the censors. One example, which is
unfortunately not included in this exhibition, is the Barcelona Haggadah, currently owned by the British Library. Luigi da Bologna, a Jew who had converted to Catholicism, worked as a censor for
the Inquisition. On the bottom of a page of the haggadah it is written, “Seen by me, Brother Luigi of the order of Saint Dominic on 1599.”
This Barcelona exhibit is in response to a trend called “the recuperation of memory” among some Catalans. Some vaguely knew about the Jewish origins of their families, including in some cases a “Jewish” last name. Others have discovered evidence of crypto­Judaic observance among their
There is tremendous ignorance about Judaism in Catalonia and Judaism was considered by some
a forbidden subject until very recently. Incredibly, it was technically illegal for Jews to live in Spain until 1968, when the Alhambra Decree was formally revoked.
Now, there is a renaissance of interest in Catalonia’s illustrious Jewish past, as seen in the
illuminated haggadahs exhibit. This exhibit will bring together the Rylands Haggadah, currently at the University of Manchester; the Graziano Haggadah from the Jewish Theological Center in New York; the Mocatta Haggadah, from the University College London, the Bologna­Modena Haggadah from the University of Bologna & Biblioteca Estense, Modena; the Cambridge Catalan Haggadah from Cambridge University, the Kaufmann Haggadah from the Hungarian Academy of Sciences; and the Poblet Haggadah from the Poblet Monastery in Catalonia.

The only haggadah that currently resides in Catalonia is the Poblet Haggadah. The story of its
return was recounted to The Times of Israel in consultation with Frai Xavier Guanter, the librarian
of the Poblet monastery.
The Poblet Haggadah was written in the 14th century in Catalonia and taken to Italy by its Jewish
owners in 1492. In 1672 it was purchased in Italy by Pedro Antonio de Aragón, the Viceroy of
Catalonia, who brought it back to Catalonia and donated it to the Poblet Monastery.
Throughout its history, the monastery of Poblet always had a good relationship with the Jews living in the area. The monks, some of who were converts from Judaism, preserved the haggadah, sometimes at great risk to themselves.
When in 1836 the Spanish government embarked on a program of confiscating church lands to finance itself, the monks were forced to flee Poblet, and monastery’s library was dispersed.
Eventually, the Poblet Haggadah was acquired by Jaume Mans I Puigarnau, a professor of canonic law at the University of Barcelona. Upon his death in 1983, he left instructions that the haggadah was to be returned to the monastery and 20 years ago, a priest delivered it there.
This museum exhibit is a fleeting experience, which will be over on July 5. However several academics have embarked on a project whose goal is to reclaim the Jewish history of Catalonia’s
haggadahs for posterity and are creating a documentary that will go back in time to14th Century


「古書の来歴」ジェラルディン ブルックス ランダムハウス講談社

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Stokes waited for right time for masterpiece

Stokes waited for right time for masterpiece

Rothschild Prayerbook4.jpg

Rothschild Prayerbook5.jpg

Rothschild Prayerbook6.jpg
【The West Australianより以下、転載】
For four weeks, one of the most valuable books in existence sat in an unopened wooden courier box in a West Perth office.

Barely a dozen people in the world knew it was there.

While speculation mounted about the fate of the Rothschild Prayerbook, Kerry Stokes - who was never on the art world's radar as a possible buyer - let it lie untouched.

He said he was waiting until the moment felt right to set eyes on a book he paid $15.5 million for, sight unseen.

"Sometimes I believe in personal discipline," he told The West Australian. "I waited until I thought the moment was right, that I would actually absorb it and enjoy it.

"It arrived in our office and it was in this giant container and people said, 'Will we open it', and I said, 'No'."

When Mr Stokes decided he had waited long enough, he unwrapped the 500-year-old manuscript and said the hairs on the back of his arm "stood up".


Mr Stokes, who is not religious, said his reaction surprised him.

"I am a pretty tough nut, I guess, and I love art as one of the expressions that probably appeals to my softer side that a lot of people would deny I had," he said. "But I enjoy art and I didn't expect to be so moved.

"I didn't expect it would move me like it did move me so emotionally. It's made me feel a deep sense of responsibility that I have got to make sure nothing happens to this book in my custody."

It's a reaction echoed by a few people in history who have laid eyes on what is often described as the most beautiful book ever made.

Roger Wieck, from New York's Morgan Library, said the book's artwork - 67 paintings by some of the best artists of the Flemish renaissance - had the power to seduce.

Christie's Euginio Danadoni, who handled the book ahead of its auction, said he contemplated "running away with it".

In an interview on Seven's Sunday Night last night, Mr Stokes revealed himself as the book's buyer and said Perth would be its new home.

For much of its 500 years, the book has been hidden away and cloaked in mystery.

No one knows who originally commissioned or owned it but there is no other illuminated manuscript in private hands like it.

The greatest Flemish renaissance painters worked on its pages in a project believed to have taken months or years to complete.

Little is known about its first 350 years until it turned up in the late 19th century in the hands of the famous Rothschild family in Vienna, who gave it their name.

In 1938, when Austria was annexed by Germany, the book was seized by the nazis and hidden away, possibly in the Austrian salt mines.

Four years later, it was sent to Vienna's National Library.

When the war ended, Austria refused to hand it back to the Rothschilds and as decades of court battles raged, it remained in a vault beneath the library.

It was finally returned to the Rothschilds in 1999 and immediately put up for auction, shattering the 26-year auction record for an illuminated manuscript held until then by the Gospels of Henry the Lion.

It was then hidden away again for 15 years by its anonymous European buyer before it was put up for sale in January this year.

Mr Stokes anonymously registered his interest less than 24 hours before the auction, bidding by phone while dressed in ski gear in Colorado.

Christie's London head of books and manuscripts Margaret Ford was on the other end of the call.

"I told him, 'We've got it' and he said, 'I think I need to sit down'," she said.

Christie's Kay Sutton said the revelation the book was in Perth would surprise the international art world "hopefully in a good way".

"It's rather wonderful to think that something so great is going to go and find new friends in an entirely different continent," she said.


Perth will be home to legendary $15m book
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Perth will be home to legendary $15m book

Perth will be home to legendary $15m book

Rothschild Prayerbook1.jpg

Rothschild Prayerbook2.jpg

Rothschild Prayerbook3.jpg

【The West Australianより以下、転載】
One of the international art world's most intriguing mysteries ended last night when Kerry Stokes outed himself as the mystery buyer of one of the most expensive books ever sold.

The fate of the legendary Rothschild Prayerbook - sold at Christie's in New York eight months ago for $15.5 million - has baffled art collectors.

The 500-year-old book of prayers is the most expensive illuminated manuscript in history and considered one of the most important books in existence.

Its purchase by an anonymous bidder in a tense auction in New York in January made international headlines.

While most believed the book had been snapped up by a European collector, it was secretly bought by Mr Stokes and shipped to Perth.


Until last night, only about a dozen people were aware of its new home.

"I feel a great responsibility," Mr Stokes said, describing the book as the most important piece in his private art collection.

Illuminated manuscripts are books with colourful, often gilded tableaux and decorative borders.

As word broke of the book's new home, former National Gallery of Victoria director Gerard Vaughan said it was possibly the most important piece of art to come to Australia.

The book, considered a renaissance masterpiece, has been hidden or locked away for much of its five centuries, which included time in the possession of the Rothschild dynasty from where it was stolen by the nazis.

Mr Stokes said he planned to put the book on show and believed it would become a "destination piece" with people travelling from around the world to see it in the same way they went to Ireland for the Books of Kells.

"Hopefully this book is one of the reasons in the future people will come to Australia," he said.

"They will come to us and see the various offerings that we have culturally and commercially. But we will have something else to offer that nobody else has and that's the Rothschild Prayerbook."

The book will be lent next year to the National Library in Canberra, followed by the Ian Potter Museum of Art at the University of Melbourne.

Perth will be its permanent home.

Mr Stokes is chairman of Seven West Media, which publishes The West Australian.






Stokes waited for right time for masterpiece
「Flemish Miniatures from the 8th to the Mid-16th Century (Single Titles in Art History)」Maurits Smeyers Brepols Pub
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The Gospel of Barnabas ‘hoax’


The Gospel of Barnabas ‘hoax’
Much has been written in the past few days, particularly in Muslim newspapers, on the discovery of a bible in Turkey, a bible that was apparently written in Aramaic – the language Jesus spoke – approximately 1,500 years ago. The bible is written on leather pages in gold letters. The cover has inscriptions in Aramaic and a cross, drawn in a rather rudimentary way. What has attracted the most attention – from the media point of view – is a number of statements made by Jesus where he apparently predicts the coming of Muhammad. Nevertheless, up to now no media organisation has published the exact words attributed to Christ.

But alas, this extraordinary discovery is probably a hoax, the work of a forger who, according to some, could have been a European Jewish scholar from the Middle Ages. The most factual criticisms have come from the Syriacs. Indeed, anyone who speaks modern Assyrian (also known as neo-Aramaic) will find the inscription on the so-called ‘Gospel of Barnabas’ easy to read. However errors are just as easy to make out. Apparently, the main inscription, in a modern transliteration, reads: ‘b-shimmit maran paish kteewa aha ktawa al idateh d-rabbaneh d-dera illaya b-ninweh b'sheeta d-alpa w-khamshamma d-maran’. This apparently means: ‘In the name of the Lord, this book is written by monks of the high monastery in Nineveh in the 1500th year of our Lord.’ There is not enough space here to go through the grammatical and conceptual errors in detail, but experts in modern Assyrian assure us that they are obvious and quite significant. Apart from anything else, the inscription says ‘book’, but one never refers to a bible in Assyrian with the word ‘book’. The Bible is either referred to as New or Old Testament, or Holy Book. It is quite unlikely that monks could have made such obvious mistakes.

However these are not the only issues in a case that raises interesting points – both at the time of its creation and now – only when considered in the light of a rather hostile attitude towards Christians. Today, a fair number of newspapers and media organisations in Muslim Countries have picked up the news, saying that ‘an ancient, 1500-year-old bible predicted the coming of Muhammad.’ Apart from the obvious age confusion between the 1500 years attributed by the media and the date of 1500 AD written in the book’s main inscription, it is clear that predicting in 1500 AD something that occurred in 630 AD is no great prophecy. So we have to ask ourselves why the Islamic media is so ready to approve what seems to be a glaring mistake whatever way you look at it, a mistake which however appeals to followers of Islam, who have always claimed that Jesus, ‘Issa’, was the predecessor of ‘the Seal of the Prophets’.

According to reports in Al Bawaba, the Turkish Minister of Culture and Tourism, Ertugrul Gunay, stated that ‘in line with Islamic belief, the Gospel of Barnabas treats Jesus as a human being and not as God. It rejects the idea of the Holy Trinity and the Crucifixion and reveals that Jesus predicted the coming of the Prophet Muhammad.’

However, even from an Islamic point of view, the ‘Gospel of Barnabas’ is far from flawless. For example, it says that there are nine heavens and that the tenth is Paradise, while the Qur’an only mentions seven. The Aramaic text states that Mary gave birth to Jesus without experiencing pain while the Qur’an explicitly refers to the pain of childbirth. Moreover, according to these reports, the apocryphal text says that Jesus apparently told Hebrew clerics that he was not the Messiah and that Muhammad would be the Messiah. This, in fact, would seem to reject the existence of a Messiah and makes it so that Jesus and Muhammad appear as the same person.

That is without even taking into account the historical details. The text mentions three armies the Palestine of the time, each of which was made up of 200,000 soldiers. However the entire population of Palestine 2,000 years ago probably didn’t come to more than 200,000 people, according to some scholars. In short, all of this leads us to believe that we are dealing with a wonderful fake. But when was it written? There is a clue and it is found in chapter 217. The last sentence states that 100 pounds of stone were placed on the body of Christ and this would lead us to believe that the gospel was penned recently: the first use of the pound as a unit of weight dates to the Ottoman Empire in its dealings with Italy and Spain. According to some scholars, ‘the gospel attributed to Saint Barnabas was written by a European Jew in the Middle Ages who was fairly familiar with the Qur’an and the Gospels. He mixed facts and elements from both but his intentions are still unknown.’ Unfortunately, despite the fact that doubts and questions concerning the gospel were well-known, many Islamic media organisations have reported the gospel’s statements on Jesus’ predictions regarding Muhammad as if they were fact, something which will certainly cause problems at a ground-roots level, in terms of relations between Christian and Muslim communities, especially if the latter do not have a high level of education.
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【iran Japanese Radioより以下、転載】








wikipedia:Gospel of Barnabas

ラベル:聖書 カトリック
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ATICAN CITY — Almost 600 years after Pope Nicholas V founded the Vatican Apostolic Library, the Holy See is now turning to 50 experts, five scanners and a Japanese IT firm to digitize millions of pages from its priceless manuscripts, opening them to the broader public for the first time.

When the project is finished, one of the richest and most important collections of historical texts in the world will be available with a click of the mouse—and free.

The plan marks a revolution for an institution known as the Popes' Library, which houses more than 82,000 manuscripts, some dating back to the second century. Scholars must now submit a detailed request to gain access to the library, which sits within the Vatican walls. The most precious works of art, such as a 1,600-year old manuscript displaying Virgil's poems once studied by Raphael, have been mostly off-limits.

"This restriction was wise to protect such valuable manuscripts from hordes of visitors," said Alberto Melloni, a church historian who has used the Vatican library several times. "If anybody could visit, it would be like putting a child with a paintbrush in front of the Mona Lisa."

By digitizing its archives, the Vatican library, established in 1451, joins the ranks of illustrious institutions such as the British Museum, Bibliothèque Nationale de France and the Cambridge University Library. The Vatican is offering "a service that we provide all mankind," said Msgr. Cesare Pasini, prefect of the library, at a recent presentation of the project.

For the past year, Vatican officials have worked closely with experts at Japanese IT firm NTT DATA Corp. to test special scanners designed to handle particularly delicate documents. Glove-wearing operators, who must remove watches and jewelry to prevent scratching the texts, made sure that the scanners wouldn't damage the documents.

The machines have a protective screen to limit the manuscripts' exposure to light, and windows must remain shut and curtains drawn during the scanning procedure to keep dust and extraneous light out of the room.

With the test phase finished, about 50 Italian and Japanese operators will soon begin the process of digitizing the first batch of 3,000 manuscripts under the watchful eye of Vatican librarians. That process, which will take place entirely inside the library, is expected to take four years.

After each document is scanned, it will be formatted for long-term storage and then released onto the library's website. The first digital images are expected to be put online in the second half of this year. All of the manuscripts, including the most delicate ones, will eventually be scanned, and viewers will be able to examine them from a variety of angles.

Digitalizing the library will be a mammoth task, involving 43 quadrillion bytes. (A byte is a unit that is used to represent an alphanumeric character.) In the end, about 40 million pages will be available for all to see. The Vatican won't say how long the whole project will take.

Disaster recovery mechanisms will be put in place so that images of the manuscripts will be conserved should anything happen to the originals."If something horrible happens—and I pray to God it doesn't—at least all this won't be lost," said James R. Ginther, professor of medieval theology and director of the Center of Digital Humanities at St. Louis University in Missouri.

NTT DATA has agreed to front the €18 million ($25 million) cost of the first, four-year phase, but it is seeking sponsors to recoup that figure. To encourage donations, the Vatican Library's website will display the sponsors' logos next to scanned images.

Even when the digitization is complete, Vatican officials expect scholars and researchers to still seek access to the library to view the originals in person.

"It is really important to have a physical feel of the manuscript…and this can only happen when you are there," said Candida Moss, professor of New Testament and Early Christianity at the University of Notre Dame, who has used the library in the past.

The opening of the library might be a letdown for Vatican conspiracy theorists. The alleged secrets housed in the Vatican's archives have sometimes featured in mystery novels, such as those penned by Dan Brown.

When asked if any compromising or embarrassing documents will emerge when the digital archives are thrown open to the public, Archbishop Jean-Louis Bruguès, librarian of the Holy Roman Church, chuckled.

"We have nothing to hide," he said.
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 IAAで発掘ディレクターを務めるレネー・フォレスタニー(Renee Forestany)、アミット・レーム(Amit Re'em)の両氏によると、この病院はエルサレムの全市民を受け入れ対象とし、最多で2000人の患者を宗教を問わず治療していたという。さらにこの施設は医療部門に加え、孤児院としても機能していたと考えられる。





 この発掘プロジェクトの責任者を務めるモンセル・シウィキ(Monser Shwieki)氏によると、建物の一部はレストランに改装されるという。「店を訪れるお客様も、この建物に満ちる、魅力的な中世の雰囲気に深い感銘を受けるだろう」と同氏は述べている。



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アートのトリセツ:取扱説明書 タピスリー


アートのトリセツ:取扱説明書 タピスリー










わざわざ、「中世の秋」まで読み直した(やっぱりつまんなくて途中で止めたけど)ぐらいで、膨大な装飾写本をこの辺で大量に作成していたことも知りました。(わざわざ flemish miniatures まで購入したんだもんね。)


英語だと "Prayer Book of Anne de Bretagne" となる。







The Cultural and Political Legacy of Anne De Bretagne: Negotiating Convention in Books and Documents (Gallica)(amazonリンク)

モーガン・ライブラリーの Prayer Book of Anne de Bretagne
The Metropolitan Museum of Artの資料より

「Flemish Miniatures from the 8th to the Mid-16th Century (Single Titles in Art History)」Maurits Smeyers Brepols Pub
「Flemish Miniatures from the 8th to the Mid-16th Century (Single Titles in Art History)」の美しい図版
「The Hours of Catherine of Cleves」John Plummer George Braziller
Illuminations: The Private Lives of Medieval Kings
「中世彩飾写本の世界」内藤裕史 美術出版社
「世界の名著 67 ホイジンガ」中央公論新~中世の秋
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Getty Museum Acquires Rare Illuminated Manuscript
The J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles bought an illuminated manuscript by the Flemish master Lieven van Lathem at a Sotheby's auction in London on Wednesday night for nearly $6.2 million.

The "Roman de Gillion de Trazegnies,'' considered one of the finest examples of the golden era of Flemish manuscript illumination, contains eight painted half-page miniatures and 44 historiated initials -- the enlarged letters incorporating pictures that begin sections of text. The work had been on loan to the Getty in 2003, when it was a highlight of its exhibition "Illuminating the Renaissance.''

"The acquisition of this richly illuminated manuscript by the greatest illuminator of the Flemish high Renaissance adds a major masterpiece to the Getty Museum's collection and represents a landmark in the Department of Manuscripts' unrivaled record of superb acquisitions over the past 30 years,'' said Timothy Potts, director of the Getty Museum, in a statement announcing the acquisition.

The "Roman de Gillion de Trazegnies" tells the story of the bizarre adventures of a nobleman from the family of Trazegnies, whose seat was in Hinaut (now Belgium). Part travelogue, part romance, part epic, it traces the exploits of Gillion on his journeys to Egypt, where he becomes a bigamist, and then dies in battle, a hero.












Ideal Illuminated Manuscripts 豪華な彩飾写本

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キリストに妻? 言及の古文書を発見

キリストに妻? 言及の古文書を発見

このパピルス紙片は、ハーバード大学の歴史学者カレン・キング(Karen King)氏が、その内容を明らかにした研究成果を発表したことで世界的ニュースとなった。名刺よりも小さなその紙片には、数行の手書きの文書が、キリスト教のシンボルを使用するコプト語で綴られていた。文書の最後の行には、イエスの発言の引用という形でこう書かれている。「そしてイエスは言った。私の妻は……」。





「2世紀に書かれたのがもし事実なら、キリストの結婚歴に関する主張は、キリストの死後1世紀以上経って、セクシュアリティや結婚、弟子の問題をめぐるキリスト教徒間の論争の中で、初めて出てきたことを示す直接的な証拠となる」。キング氏は、プリンストン大学の宗教学教授アンマリー・ライアンダイク(AnneMarie Luijendijk)氏と共同執筆した論文草稿の中で、このように述べている。

 ノースカロライナ大学チャペルヒル校の宗教学者で著述家のバート・アーマン(Bart Ehrman)氏は次のように話す。「もしこれが言われているとおりのものなら、史上初の発見だ。この種のものは確かにこれまで見つかっていなかった」。



 オタワ大学でコプト語とパピルス学を研究するイッツェ・ダイクストラ(Jitse Dijkstra)氏は、このパピルス紙片の発見を「大きな進歩」と評価する。

 パピルス紙片を発見したハーバード大学のキング氏が「New York Times」紙の取材に対して語ったところによると、この紙片は個人収集家から貸し出されたものであり、理由は不明だが、何らかの事情でこれまで数十年間その存在を伏せられていたのだという。

 このパピルス紙片の前にキリスト教研究者の心をとらえた重要文書といえば、「ユダの福音書」だ。この研究プロジェクトの詳細はナショナル ジオグラフィック誌で特集されている。

 ナショナル ジオグラフィック協会の支援で修復と保存作業が行われたこの長大な文書は、キリストの使徒イスカリオテのユダが、長らく研究者や宗教的指導者たちに考えられていたような裏切り者ではなく、裏切りとされる行為は、ユダがキリストの指示を受けてとったものだった可能性を示している。


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'Wife of Jesus' reference in Coptic 4th Century script
【BBC NEWSより以下、転載】
Harvard divinity professor Karen King unveiled the 4th-Century Coptic script at a conference in Rome.
She said researchers had identified the words "Jesus said to them, 'my wife'", which might refer to Mary Magdalene.
Christian tradition holds that Jesus did not marry - but Prof King said in early years it was subject to debate.
The provocative find could spark debate over celibacy and the role of women within Christianity, she added.
But the announcement sparked scepticism from some theologians.
Jim West, a professor and Baptist pastor in Tennessee, said: "A statement on a papyrus fragment isn't proof of anything. It's nothing more than a statement 'in thin air', without substantial context."
Wolf-Peter Funk, a noted Coptic linguist attending the same conference as Prof King, said there were "thousands of scraps of papyrus where you find crazy things," and many questions remained about the fragment.
'Worthy disciple'
Prof King said the document, written in ancient Egyptian Coptic, is the first known scripture in which Jesus is reported to cite his wife.
She said the 4th-Century text was a copy of a gospel, probably written in Greek in the 2nd Century.
She said initially she was sceptical about the yellowish brown papyrus, and started from the notion that it was a forgery - but that she quickly decided it was genuine.
Several other experts agreed, she said, but the "final judgment on the fragment depends on further examination by colleagues and further testing, especially of the chemical composition of the ink".
Prof King said the script was not proof of Jesus's marital status.
"It is not evidence, for us, historically, that Jesus had a wife," she said.
"It's quite clear evidence, in fact, that some Christians, probably in the second half of the 2nd Century, thought that Jesus had a wife."
Prof King said it revealed the concerns of early Christians with regard to family and marriage matters.
"From the very beginning, Christians disagreed about whether it was better not to marry, but it was over a century after Jesus's death before they began appealing to Jesus's marital status to support their positions.
"What this shows is that there were early Christians for whom sexual union in marriage could be an imitation of God's creativity and generativity and it could be spiritually proper and appropriate."
Bible scholar Ben Witherington III, a professor in Kentucky, said the term "wife" might simply refer to a female domestic assistant and follower.
Private owner
According to Prof King's research team, the text also quotes Jesus as telling his followers that Mary Magdalene is worthy of being his disciple.
This, in turn, could throw into question the long-held belief that Jesus had no female apostles, and raises issues about Mary's biblical role as a sinner, the researchers said.
Prof King presented the document at a six-day conference held at Rome's La Sapienza University and at the Augustinianum institute of the Pontifical Lateran University.
The faded papyrus is hardly bigger than a business card and has eight lines on one side, in black ink legible under a magnifying glass.
The private collector, who owns the fragment, has asked to remain anonymous because "he doesn't want to be hounded by people who want to buy this", Prof King said.
She said he had contacted Prof King to help translate and analyse it.
Nothing was known about the circumstances of its discovery, but because of the script used she had concluded it must have come from Egypt.








キリストに妻? 言及の古文書を発見・・・ナショナルジオグラフィック日本版
<キリスト既婚説>波紋広がる 米で活発「女性の地位」関連
「原典 ユダの福音書」日経ナショナルジオグラフィック社
「ユダとは誰か」荒井 献 岩波書店
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<キリスト既婚説>波紋広がる 米で活発「女性の地位」関連

<キリスト既婚説>波紋広がる 米で活発「女性の地位」関連

【文書についての詳細、問題のパピルスの画像入り記事】キリストに妻? 言及の古文書を発見(ナショナルジオグラフィックニュース)













キリストに妻? 言及の古文書を発見
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【以下、AFPBB Newsより転載】

 1月に明るみに出た今回の文書流出事件は、「バチカン」と「リークス(漏えい)」を合わせた「バチリークス(Vatileaks)」という造語で呼ばれている。さまざまな陰謀が渦巻くバチカン市国の国務長官(首相に相当)を務めるタルチジオ・ベルトーネ(Tarcisio Bertone)枢機卿の失脚を狙ったものとみられている。

 伊紙イル・ファット・クオティディアーノ(Il Fatto Quotidiano)のバチカン専門記者マルコ・ポリティ(Marco Politi)氏がAFPに語ったところによると「流出した文書は、すべて何らかの形でベルトーネ枢機卿に関するもの」だった。同記者は「今回の流出は彼に打撃を与え、新しい国務長官に替えさせようとする動き」だとみている。バチカン内部にはベルトーネ枢機卿が権力を乱用し、カトリック教会の利益にならない行動を取っていると批判する声があるという。

 流出した文書はローマ法王ベネディクト16世(Benedict XVI)のデスク上から直接持ち出されコピーされた私的文書。内部告発者の一掃に法王庁が動く中、イタリアのメディアでは策略はさらに深いものではないかという臆測が流れている。



 伊紙レプブリカ(La Repubblica)によれば、複数の枢機卿から成るあるグループは、非常に野心的な目標を持ってすでに行動を始めている。まず国務長官職を手中に収め、それから自分たちが推す法王候補を伴って新法王を選出する会議「コンクラーベ」を押さえる筋書きだという。



 おそらく汚職を取り締まるためにバチカン財政の清浄化を図ろうとしていた矢先に異動させられたカルロ・マリア・ビガノ(Carlo Maria Vigano)大司教とベルトーネ枢機卿の確執も明るみに出た。ビガノ大司教は法王に書簡を送り、利権や浪費、不正な財務を一掃しようとしたことを理由に罰さないで欲しいと懇願したがその甲斐なく異動させられた。



 イタリア人神学者ヴィト・マンキューソ(Vito Mancuso)氏は5月下旬、報道陣にこう語った。「漏えい文書はベルトーレに向けられた銃弾だ。彼ら(文書を流出させた人たち)はベルトーレを沈没させたがっている。彼を辞めさせたがっているのだ」

 さらなる文書漏えいを食い止めるためにバチカンは素早く動き、内部文書を保持していたとしてベネディクト16世の秘書、パオロ・ガブリエレ(Paolo Gabriele)補佐官を逮捕した。現在この他に法王の身辺で働いている多くの人物が取り調べられているとされる。


 バチカンに詳しいブルーノ・バルトローニ(Bruno Bartoloni)氏は、劣悪な統治と腐敗に悩まされ続けているバチカンの多くの関係者は今回の「バチリークス」で我慢の限界を超えたと語る。






「神の銀行家」変死、マフィアら無罪 謎解けぬまま…
「法王の銀行家」殺害で4人起訴 CNN
「法王暗殺」デイヴィッド・ヤロップ 文芸春秋
「バチカン・ミステリー」ジョン コーンウェル 徳間書店
法王の銀行家 2002年の映画
「マネーロンダリング入門」橘 玲 幻冬舎
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23 Feb. "Fukushima 2012 Inside the Meltdown" from BBC document








東海原発の時も、最終的に人力により最悪な事態を脱したけれども、今回も個々人のまさに献身的な犠牲によって、かろうじて守られた! しかも『幸運なことに』・・・という枕詞があってこそのもの。





















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内部告発サイトWikiLeaks(ウィキリークス)は2012年2月27日、米大手シンクタンクStratforの電子メールを公開する専用サイト「Global Intelligence Files」を立ち上げた。2004年7月から2011年12月にやりとりされた500万通以上の電子メールデータが含まれる。


 Global Intelligence Filesでは、電子メールを日付ごとに整理し、件名、送信者、受信者、送信日時、電子メールIDを一覧表示できる。件名あるいは電子メールIDをクリックするとメッセージ内容を閲覧可能だ。メッセージ内容から、情報提供者の確保、情報提供者への報酬の仕組みなどがうかがえる。

 また、米政府によるWikiLeaks創設者Julian Assange氏に対する攻撃やStratforのWikiLeaks転覆計画の部外秘情報も含まれ、WikiLeaksあるいはAssange氏に言及した電子メールメッセージは4000通を超えるという。



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16世紀の宗教改革者マルティン・ルター(Martin Luther)への破門状や、地動説を唱えたガリレオ・ガリレイ(Galileo Galilei)に対する17世紀の異端審問の記録など、ローマ法王庁の機密文書館が所蔵している歴史的文書の一部、約100点が2月29日から9月9日まで、イタリア・ローマ(Rome)のカピトリーニ美術館(Capitoline Museums)で初めて一般公開されている。


 今回展示されている文書には、古くは14世紀のテンプル騎士団(Knights Templar)の宗教裁判に関する文書から、クリストファー・コロンブス(Christopher Columbus)のアメリカ大陸発見を受けてローマ法王アレクサンデル6世(Alexander VI)が出した15世紀の布告、16世紀の芸術家ミケランジェロ(Michelangelo)が残したサン・ピエトロ大聖堂(St. Peter's Basilica)建設に関する書簡などがある。

 その他、1789年にフランス革命で捕われの身となった王妃マリー・アントワネット(Marie-Antoinette)の獄中からの手紙、第2次世界大戦中にユダヤ人迫害に十分介入しなかったことで後に批判されたローマ法王ピウス12世(Pius XII)についての文書など、まさに欧州史を俯瞰する内容となっている。

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各国政府の機密文書をネット上で公開してきた内部告発サイト「ウィキリークス(WikiLeaks)」は23日、創設者のジュリアン・アサンジ(Julian Assange)容疑者が世界各国のキーパーソンと「徹底討論」するテレビ番組シリーズを放映すると発表した。




 すでにロシアの国営放送「RT(旧ロシア・トゥデー、Russia Today)」が24日、アサンジ容疑者の対談番組を世界で最初に放映することを決めたと発表した。放送開始は3月中旬になるという。







「ウィキリークスの衝撃」菅原出 日経BP社
「全貌ウィキリークス」マルセル・ローゼンバッハ、ホルガー・シュタルク 早川書房
「ウィキリークスの時代」グレッグ・ミッチェル 岩波書店
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ワンちゃんは心を読むのか? 正確ではないにしろ・・・・。

Dogs often seem to be psychic, anticipating what we're going to say or do, and now research reveals one secret behind this canine ESP: Dogs intensely track our eye movements, which can be tied to intent.

Human babies also possess the ability, described in the latest Current Biology. The discovery might help to explain why so many people treat their furry pals like their kids.

"Dogs are receptive to human communication in a manner that was previously attributed only to six-month-old human infants," co-author Jozsef Topal told Discovery News.

"They read our intention to communicate in a preverbal, infant-like manner," added Topal, who works in the Institute for Psychological Research at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

WATCH VIDEO: Scientists find that cats and dogs drink liquids using entirely different methods.
For the study, Topal and his colleagues presented dogs with video recordings of a person turning toward one of two identical plastic pots while an eye tracker captured information about the dogs' reactions.

In one test, the person looked directly at the dog, addressing it in a high-pitched voice with "Hi dog!"

In the second test, the person gave only a low-pitched "Hi dog" while avoiding eye contact.

The study determined that dogs were more likely to follow along and look at the pot when the person first expressed an intention to communication.

While dog-lovers the world over have likely suspected that their pets have such talents, the experiment is actually the first to ever use eye-tracking techniques to study canine social skills.

The researchers say that dog social skills reach the level of a two-year-old human, since the only talent that's missing is language.

"Although dogs might use a different cognitive architecture for processing human communication, they can play the role of being a child substitute," Topal said.

"These skills on the part of the dog help to make the human-dog bond stronger, which is actually unique when taking into account the biological differences between the two species."

Dogs were the first animals to be domesticated and for no apparent direct benefit, such as for food or herding, explained Topal. Dog social cognition has evolved over thousands of years, during which time wolf-like capabilities were transformed by the challenges of living with humans.

Topal and his team suspect that horses and domesticated cats may also be able to read human intent, since they too have lived closely with us for many years.

Dogs may be the most perceptive, however.

"Dogs are in a special way tuned in to humans," Topal explained. "They are interested in finding out how we think, and they are able to do it by reading our subtle communicative behaviors."

In a separate new study published in the journal Animal Behaviour, researchers discovered that dogs communicate with humans to request, but not to inform. Nevertheless, the process is still very focused and intense.

We show "how much dogs are tuned into the intentional dimension of human communication and how important certain signals are for them to know when communication is relevant and directed at them," said Juliane Kaminski, lead author of the paper and a researcher in the Evolutionary Roots of Human Social Interaction group at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.

Topal thinks it's possible that dogs are even sometimes better than adults are at reading human intent, given that they are so attuned to smells, sounds, and other cues.

"They can easily learn to associate even unconscious behavioral cues of their owner with particular consequences," he said. "This way, a dog can acquire an ability to anticipate the owner's behavior, and this may give a false impression of mind-reading."




ラベル:ニュース 海外
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A computer virus infected a data terminal at Japan's space agency, causing a leak of potentially sensitive information, officials announced today (Jan. 13).

The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) discovered the malware Jan. 6 on a terminal used by one of its employees. A trace showed that the computer virus had gathered information from the machine, officials said.

JAXA still isn't sure how the virus got on the computer, or who put it there.

"Information stored in the computer as well as system information that is accessible by the employee have been leaking outside," JAXA said in a statement today. "We are now confirming the leaked information and investigating the cause."

SCIENCE CHANNEL: Top 10 Computer Viruses

The employee in question works on JAXA's H-2 Transfer Vehicle, an unmanned vessel that ferries cargo to the International Space Station. Information about the robotic spacecraft and its operations may thus have been compromised, officials said, along with stored email addresses and system login information accessed from the infected computer.

This same computer has had issues before. JAXA detected a different virus on the machine last August and removed the software. They kept monitoring the computer and noticed further anomalies, leading to the virus detection on Jan. 6.

WATCH VIDEO: The Japanese Hayabusa probe exploded on its re-entry to Earth, but a capsule containing samples of asteroid dust survived.
JAXA also has determined that the computer "sent out some information" sometime between July 6 and Aug. 11 of 2011, officials said.

The space agency is working to minimize the damage and prevent further incursions.

"With the above backdrop, passwords for all accessible systems from the computer have been immediately changed in order to prevent any abuse of possibly leaked information, and we are currently investigating the scale of damage and the impact," JAXA said in the statement. "Also, all other computer terminals are being checked for virus infections."

NEWS: Japan Reportedly Building Vigilante Virus Assassin Squad

Computer viruses aren't just a problem on terra firma anymore. In 2008, a laptop used by astronauts aboard the International Space Station was found to be infected with a virus designed to swipe passwords from online gamers.

That malware proved to be more of a mysterious nuisance than a real problem, NASA officials said.













 説明を行った執行役 情報システム部統括の大矢浩氏によれば、jaxaに対しては年間に多数のなりすましメールなどが送り付けられており、職員への周知や注意喚起を繰り返し実施していた。今回の事件はこうした取り組みのすき間を突く形で発生し、標的型メール対策の難しさが浮き彫りになった格好だ。






2. 現在判明している状況について




ラベル:ニュース 宇宙 JAXA
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In movies, medieval knights are portrayed as courageous and loyal heroes who will fight to the death without fear or regret.

In reality, the lives of knights were filled with a litany of stresses much like those that modern soldiers deal with.

They were often sleep-deprived, exhausted and malnourished. They slept outside on hard ground, fully exposed to whatever weather befell them. And their lives were full of horror and carnage as they regularly killed other men and watched their friends die.

Faced with the trauma inherent in a life of combat, according to a new look at ancient texts, medieval knights sometimes struggled with despair, fear, powerlessness and delusions. Some may have even suffered from post-traumatic stress or related disorders, argues a Danish researcher, just as their modern-day counterparts do.

The research strives to add a dose of humanity to our understanding of knights, who are often considered cold and heartless killers.

"As a medievalist, it's a bit irritating to hear people say that the Middle Ages were just populated by brutal and mindless thugs who just wallowed in warfare," said Thomas Heebøll-Holm, a medieval historian at the University of Copenhagen. "I'm going for a nuanced picture of humans that lived in the past. They were people just like you and me, as far as we can tell."

Ever since the war in Vietnam, there has been a growing recognition that the terrors of battle, torture, terrorism and other horrific experiences can result in a type of severe psychological distress now known as PTSD. To be diagnosed with the disorder, people must suffer from uncontrollable and intense stress for at least a month after a horrifying event. Symptoms can include flashbacks, nightmares, depression and hyperactivity.

When soldiers go to war in modern times, Heebøll-Holm said, psychologists now recognize that the stresses they encounter can lower their psychological resistance until they finally succumb to anxiety disorders. Since medieval knights faced as many and possibly more hardships than modern soldiers do, he wondered if he might be able to find references to signs of trauma in warriors who fought during the Middle Ages.

In addition to other documents, Heebøll-Holm focused on three texts written by a 14th-century French knight named Geoffroi de Charny, who was also a diplomat and trusted adviser to King John II.

No one knows for sure why Charny wrote the documents, whose translated titles included "The Book of Chivalry" and "Questions Concerning the Joust, Tournaments and War." The most popular theory is that they were part of an effort to create an ideological program for the royal French chivalric order that would rival the British equivalent.

Though many of these texts have been thoroughly analyzed already, Heebøll-Holm was the first to look between the lines through the lens of modern military psychology. And while it's hard to ever completely understand a culture that was so very different (and far more religious) than our own, Heebøll-Holm found a number of examples that would suggest at least the potential for trauma in medieval knights.

Among his writings, for example, Charny wrote:

"In this profession one has to endure heat, hunger and hard work, to sleep little and often to keep watch. And to be exhausted and to sleep uncomfortably on the ground only to be abruptly awakened. And you will be powerless to change the situation. You will often be afraid when you see your enemies coming towards you with lowered lances to run you through and with drawn swords to cut you down. Bolts and arrows come at you and you do not know how best to protect yourself. You see people killing each other, fleeing, dying and being taken prisoner and you see the bodies of your dead friends lying before you. But your horse is not dead, and by its vigorous speed you can escape in dishonour. But if you stay, you will win eternal honour. Is he not a great martyr, who puts himself to such work?"

NEWS: Gladiator Chews Out Ref From Grave

Charny showed no signs of instability, Heebøll-Holm said, but he repeatedly expressed concern about the mental health of other knights. And there is no doubt that medieval knights suffered a lot, said Richard Kaeuper, a medieval historian at the University of Rochester in New York, who has translated and written extensively about Charny's "Book of Chivalry."

Tales from that era include all sorts of gruesome details, Kaeuper said. Many tell of warriors vomiting blood or holding their entrails in with their hands. One mentions a Castilian knight who gets a crossbolt stuck up his nose in his first fight. Another tells of a fighter getting slashed by a sword through his mouth. Again and again, there are references to bad food, uncomfortable conditions and relentless fighting.

After so many centuries, though, it can be challenging to interpret old texts, said Kaeuper, who was intrigued by Heebøll-Holm's theory. Part of the problem is that knights never psychoanalyzed themselves, at least not in print. Instead, they either offered advice to other knights about how to act in various situations or they simply recounted events.

One of the biggest differences between now and then, Kaeuper added, is that medieval knights were usually born into their elite and noble order, and they were trained from a young age to think of themselves as warriors who fought in the name of Christianity. Modern soldiers, on the other hand, often leave a very comfortable life for one of violence and trauma.

Knights "were not civilians who were suddenly thrust into this," Kaeuper said. "I think that makes a difference."




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oldest_koran.jpgOne of world's oldest copies of the Koran goes on show at British Museum
One of the oldest known copies of the Koran went on show at the British Museum today ahead of a new exhibition.

The Koran, lent by the British Library, will be part of the exhibition, Hajj: Journey To The Heart Of Islam, the first major collection dedicated to the Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca in Saudi Arabia.

Mecca is viewed as a spiritual centre as the place where Prophet Mohammed received the first revelations in the early 7th century.

The copy of the Koran is thought to date from the 8th century AD, according to the British Library.

The Koran states it is a sacred duty for Muslims who are able to make the journey to Mecca to do so at least once in their lives.

The collection will examine the significance of the Hajj as one of the Five Pillars of Islam, exploring its importance for Muslims and looking at how it has evolved.

A host of objects have been lent to the exhibition from public and private collections from the UK and around the world, including important historic pieces and new contemporary art works.

The objects will document the perilous journey associated with the pilgrimage, gifts offered to the sanctuary as acts of devotion and the souvenirs brought back from Hajj.

Some of the objects will include archaeological material, manuscripts, textiles, historic photographs and significant material from Saudi Arabia.



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「全貌ウィキリークス」マルセル・ローゼンバッハ、ホルガー・シュタルク 早川書房
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告発サイト「ウィキリークス」、ノーベル平和賞候補に ノルウェー議員が推薦

告発サイト「ウィキリークス」、ノーベル平和賞候補に ノルウェー議員が推薦
米外交公電などを公表した内部告発サイト「ウィキリークス(WikiLeaks)」を2011年ノーベル平和賞(Nobel Peace Prize)候補に推薦したと、ノルウェーの国会議員が2日、発表した。民主主義国家も含む世界の透明性を測る基準を提供したことを、推薦理由としている。

 ノルウェーの連立与党の一角を占める左派社会党(SV)のスノーレ・バーレン(Snorre Valen)議員はブログで、「(中国の民主活動家の)劉暁波(Liu Xiaobo)氏は、中国国内での人権、民主主義、言論の自由との戦いによって、前年のノーベル平和賞を受賞した」と指摘。「同様にウィキリークスも、そうした価値観のための世界規模の戦いに貢献した。その方法は、腐敗や戦争犯罪、拷問などの暴露で、これらは時にノルウェーの同盟国によってさえ実行されていた」と、暗に米国を批判した。

 またバーレン議員は、先日起きたチュニジアのジャスミン革命(Jasmine Revolution)にもウィキリークスが影響したと述べ、「チュニジアの大統領一族による国有財産の横領などを暴露したことで、ウィキリークスは24年間続いた強権体制の打倒に小さな貢献を果たした」と記している。




「全貌ウィキリークス」マルセル・ローゼンバッハ、ホルガー・シュタルク 早川書房
日本政府、情報機関を準備か 豪紙入手の米外交公電
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内部告発サイト「ウィキリークス(WikiLeaks)」創設者のジュリアン・アサンジ(Julian Assange)容疑者が1日、市民を監視する技術を各国政府に売り込む「国際的な産業」に関する文書の公開を始めたと発表した。


 英ロンドン(London)で記者会見したアサンジ氏は、「今日、国際的な大衆監視産業の実態を示した287文書を公開する。この産業は、独裁者にも民主主義国にも、国民のプライバシーに割り込む機器を売り込んでいる」と発言。10年前には米国家安全保障局(National Security Agency、NSA)や英政府通信本部(Government Communications Headquarters、GCHQ)など一部政府の情報局だけを相手にして表に出ることのなかった業界が、いまや国境をまたぐ巨大ビジネスに成長していると警告した。



WikiLeaks: The Spy Files
Mass interception of entire populations is not only a reality, it is a secret new industry spanning 25 countries

It sounds like something out of Hollywood, but as of today, mass interception systems, built by Western intelligence contractors, including for ’political opponents’ are a reality. Today WikiLeaks began releasing a database of hundreds of documents from as many as 160 intelligence contractors in the mass surveillance industry. Working with Bugged Planet and Privacy International, as well as media organizations form six countries – ARD in Germany, The Bureau of Investigative Journalism in the UK, The Hindu in India, L’Espresso in Italy, OWNI in France and the Washington Post in the U.S. Wikileaks is shining a light on this secret industry that has boomed since September 11, 2001 and is worth billions of dollars per year. WikiLeaks has released 287 documents today, but the Spy Files project is ongoing and further information will be released this week and into next year.

International surveillance companies are based in the more technologically sophisticated countries, and they sell their technology on to every country of the world. This industry is, in practice, unregulated. Intelligence agencies, military forces and police authorities are able to silently, and on mass, and secretly intercept calls and take over computers without the help or knowledge of the telecommunication providers. Users’ physical location can be tracked if they are carrying a mobile phone, even if it is only on stand by.

But the WikiLeaks Spy Files are more than just about ’good Western countries’ exporting to ’bad developing world countries’. Western companies are also selling a vast range of mass surveillance equipment to Western intelligence agencies. In traditional spy stories, intelligence agencies like MI5 bug the phone of one or two people of interest. In the last ten years systems for indiscriminate, mass surveillance have become the norm. Intelligence companies such as VASTech secretly sell equipment to permanently record the phone calls of entire nations. Others record the location of every mobile phone in a city, down to 50 meters. Systems to infect every Facebook user, or smart-phone owner of an entire population group are on the intelligence market.

Selling Surveillance to Dictators

When citizens overthrew the dictatorships in Egypt and Libya this year, they uncovered listening rooms where devices from Gamma corporation of the UK, Amesys of France, VASTech of South Africa and ZTE Corp of China monitored their every move online and on the phone.

Surveillance companies like SS8 in the U.S., Hacking Team in Italy and Vupen in France manufacture viruses (Trojans) that hijack individual computers and phones (including iPhones, Blackberries and Androids), take over the device, record its every use, movement, and even the sights and sounds of the room it is in. Other companies like Phoenexia in the Czech Republic collaborate with the military to create speech analysis tools. They identify individuals by gender, age and stress levels and track them based on ‘voiceprints’. Blue Coat in the U.S. and Ipoque in Germany sell tools to governments in countries like China and Iran to prevent dissidents from organizing online.

Trovicor, previously a subsidiary of Nokia Siemens Networks, supplied the Bahraini government with interception technologies that tracked human rights activist Abdul Ghani Al Khanjar. He was shown details of personal mobile phone conversations from before he was interrogated and beaten in the winter of 2010-2011.

How Mass Surveillance Contractors Share Your Data with the State

In January 2011, the National Security Agency broke ground on a $1.5 billion facility in the Utah desert that is designed to store terabytes of domestic and foreign intelligence data forever and process it for years to come.

Telecommunication companies are forthcoming when it comes to disclosing client information to the authorities - no matter the country. Headlines during August’s unrest in the UK exposed how Research in Motion (RIM), makers of the Blackberry, offered to help the government identify their clients. RIM has been in similar negotiations to share BlackBerry Messenger data with the governments of India, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.

Weaponizing Data Kills Innocent People

There are commercial firms that now sell special software that analyze this data and turn it into powerful tools that can be used by military and intelligence agencies.

For example, in military bases across the U.S., Air Force pilots use a video link and joystick to fly Predator drones to conduct surveillance over the Middle East and Central Asia. This data is available to Central Intelligence Agency officials who use it to fire Hellfire missiles on targets.

The CIA officials have bought software that allows them to match phone signals and voice prints instantly and pinpoint the specific identity and location of individuals. Intelligence Integration Systems, Inc., based in Massachusetts - sells a “location-based analytics” software called Geospatial Toolkit for this purpose. Another Massachusetts company named Netezza, which bought a copy of the software, allegedly reverse engineered the code and sold a hacked version to the Central Intelligence Agency for use in remotely piloted drone aircraft.

IISI, which says that the software could be wrong by a distance of up to 40 feet, sued Netezza to prevent the use of this software. Company founder Rich Zimmerman stated in court that his “reaction was one of stun, amazement that they (CIA) want to kill people with my software that doesn’t work."

Orwell’s World

Across the world, mass surveillance contractors are helping intelligence agencies spy on individuals and ‘communities of interest’ on an industrial scale.

The Wikileaks Spy Files reveal the details of which companies are making billions selling sophisticated tracking tools to government buyers, flouting export rules, and turning a blind eye to dictatorial regimes that abuse human rights.

The Spyfiles - The Map

「全貌ウィキリークス」マルセル・ローゼンバッハ、ホルガー・シュタルク 早川書房
日本政府、情報機関を準備か 豪紙入手の米外交公電
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日本政府、情報機関を準備か 豪紙入手の米外交公電

日本政府、情報機関を準備か 豪紙入手の米外交公電
内部告発ウェブサイト「ウィキリークス(WikiLeaks)」が入手した米外交公電によると、日本政府が、米中央情報局(CIA)や英秘密情報部(MI6)をモデルとした、戦後初めての本格的な対外情報機関を準備している。豪紙シドニー・モーニング・ヘラルド(Sydney Morning Herald)が21日、報じた。

 シドニー・モーニング・ヘラルド紙によると、同紙は在日米大使館の外交公電をウィキリークスから独占入手した。日本の新たな情報機関は、中国と北朝鮮の情報収集を目的として、内閣情報調査室(内調、Cabinet Intelligence and Research Office、CIRO)のもとに設置が進められているという。

 2008年に、当時の内調トップだった三谷秀史(Hideshi Mitani)氏が米国務省情報調査局のランダル・フォート(Randall Fort)局長に「人的情報収集能力」が優先事項だと語った。福田康夫(Yasuo Fukuda)、麻生太郎(Taro Aso)両元首相がこのプロジェクトを開始したという。






「全貌ウィキリークス」マルセル・ローゼンバッハ、ホルガー・シュタルク 早川書房
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 開催地は、「黒い聖母(Black Madonna)」のイコン(絵画)を祭っているポーランド・カトリックの聖地、ヤスナ・グラ修道院(Jasna Gora Monastery)。同修道院のラジオ放送によると、今年の会議では「欧州や世界全体の吸血鬼たちの最近のトレンドや心の病、悪魔ばらい実施中の悪魔による妨害」などについて話し合われた。この会議は2年に1度開催されている。

 インドのルーファス・パレイラ(Rufus Pereira)司祭や、オーストリア・ウィーン大司教区のラリー・ホーガン(Larry Hogan)チーフ・エクソシストなど悪魔ばらい界の著名人も参加したほか、悪霊が乗り移るほど深刻ではないケースで悪魔ばらいに協力したり、自らが処置したりする聖職者や一般の人たちも参加した。

 会場のヤスナ・グラ修道院にある「黒い聖母」のイコン画には奇跡を起こす力があると、多くのポーランド人が考えている。同修道院のウェブサイトによると、イエス・キリストの12使徒の1人、聖ルカが聖家族(Holy Family)の家にあったテーブルの天板に描いたものとされている。この絵が14世紀にポーランドへやって来たことを示唆する記録がある。




「バチカン・エクソシスト」トレイシー・ウィルキンソン 文藝春秋
エクソシスト養成講座 記事各種
エクソシスト ビギニング  レニー・ハーリン監督

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Lost $200 Million Da Vinci to Go on Show in U.K.
A rediscovered Leonardo Da Vinci painting, valued by dealers at a record $200 million, is no longer for sale. The work is due to be included in an exhibition at London’s National Gallery starting in November.

The image of Christ, once owned by King Charles I, was acquired in the mid-2000s by the American art dealer Alex Parish and is currently owned by a group comprising him and at least two other traders, according to two persons with knowledge of the matter who declined to be named.

“There were some discussions with a museum concerning the possible acquisition of the painting, but it hasn’t been offered for many months,” said the New York-based private dealer Robert Simon. “I’ve assured the National Gallery that the painting isn’t on the market and that there are no plans to sell it after the exhibition.”

“I have an interest in the painting,” said Simon, who began studying the Leonardo in 2005. “I’m coordinating the research and representing the owners.” He declined to reveal who is in the group or the Leonardo’s price when it was on the market. He described its condition as “typical for a work of about 1500.”

“Salvator Mundi,” a 2-foot-high (0.6 meter) panel painting showing Christ half-length holding a crystal orb, will be among more than 90 works on display in “Leonardo da Vinci: Painter at the Court of Milan” running from Nov. 9, 2011 through Feb. 5, 2012. The museum in Trafalgar Square has stringent guidelines to prevent being compromised by commercial interests.

Gallery Guidelines

“The National Gallery does not display paintings when they are for sale,” the museum said in an e-mail yesterday. “Any painting for sale is removed from display and returned to the owner, following a standard procedure for returning a loan picture.”

Simon issued a statement yesterday describing the provenance, conservation and authorship of “Salvator Mundi.” Scholars at the National Gallery and other institutions have agreed it is by Leonardo, making it the first painting by the artist to have been discovered since 1909. It is described as dating either from the late 1490s or from about 1500, when the “Mona Lisa” was painted. Only about 15 oils by the Italian Renaissance master survive, said the statement.

The painting was sold at auction by descendants of the U.K. collector Frederick Cook in 1958. It was described as the work of the Leonardo follower Boltraffio and fetched 45 pounds (now $72). More recently, it was part of an American collection, said the statement.

Paint Layers

The Leonardo had been offered for sale after being acquired six or seven years ago at an estate auction in the U.S., ARTnews magazine reported in June. The original Leonardo composition had been revealed after the removal of layers of later overpaint.

Potential buyers were being asked about $200 million for “Salvator Mundi,” making it the most expensive work of art ever offered for sale, said dealers. An offer of $100 million had been turned down, they said.

The highest price achieved for a work of art is the $140 million paid for the Jackson Pollock abstract, “No.5, 1948,” in a private sale in 2006, according to the New York Times.

The auction record for an Old Master is the 49.5 million pounds given for Rubens’s “Massacre of the Innocents” at Sotheby’s (BID) in 2002. Titian’s “Diana and Actaeon” was bought by the U.K. on behalf of the National Gallery and the National Galleries of Scotland for 50 million pounds in 2009.

Leonardo Market

“If and when it comes on the market, anything is possible,” said the London-based dealer Jean-Luc Baroni, who was the underbidder, on behalf of a collector, when a drawing by Raphael sold for 29.2 million pounds at Christie’s International in 2009.

“Leonardo is the biggest name,” Baroni said. “It just depends on whether a buyer can be found who is comfortable at that price level. Maybe there’s a Chinese or a Russian who’s prepared to pay it.”

The appearance of “Salvator Mundi” at the National Gallery in November will be the first time the cleaned painting has been seen in public, dealers said. Visitor numbers may be boosted by the success of Dan Brown’s 2003 bestseller “The Da Vinci Code.”


ラテン語でのいうところの "Salvator Mundi"「世界の救世主」っていうタイトルらしいです。





Lost Leonardo da Vinci painting to break all records
The oil painting, which depicts Christ with one hand raised in blessing and the other cradling a globe, is entitled 'Salvator Mundi' or 'Saviour of the World'.

Its discovery has been hailed by scholars as one of the most important artistic finds of the last 100 years.
For centuries it was believed to have been the work of a protégé of Leonardo.
But recent restoration work convinced a panel of eminent scholars in Britain, Italy and the US that it was created by the Renaissance master.
It is reportedly due to go on display for the first time at the National Gallery in London in November.

It is then expected to be offered for sale by the consortium of American dealers that own it, having reportedly bought it an estate sale about six years ago.
The oil on wood painting was once owned by King Charles I, and after his execution was passed it on to his son, Charles II.
It then vanished into obscurity until it turned up in the possession of Sir Francis Cook, a 19th-century British collector.
It was sold in 1958 for just £45, having been attributed to Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio, one of Leonardo's pupils.
When the painting, which measures 26 in by 18 in, was acquired by the American consortium, restorers were brought in to scrape off centuries of grime and varnish to correct earlier, botched restoration efforts.
But as they delicately returned the painting to its original state, they began to think that it was the work of the master himself.
The exact circumstances of the painting's rediscovery and how much it might be worth were cloaked in secrecy yesterday.
Prof Martin Kemp, Emeritus Professor of the History of Art at Oxford University, was one of four of the world's foremost Leonardo experts invited to inspect the painting at the National Gallery.
But he told The Daily Telegraph that he could not comment until the owner of the work issued an official announcement, probably in September.
Pietro Marani, an Italian art historian who directed the restoration of Leonardo's Last Supper in Milan, viewed the work in London last year.
"Before the restoration it was in a bad state, covered by old layers of paint. But during the restoration the quality of the painting emerged – the marvellous colours, the reds and blues of the garment (worn by Christ), which are reminiscent of The Last Supper.
A comparison with another da Vinci work, the Virgin of the Rocks, "also seems to confirm that this is a Leonardo painting," said Prof Marani, along with scientific tests of the paint.
The National Gallery would not confirm or deny whether the picture will feature in its forthcoming exhibition, 'Leonardo da Vinci: Painter at the Court of Milan", which starts on Nov 9, but its appearance would be a major coup.
The exhibition of 60 paintings and drawings is already being claimed as "sensational" because it will gather together Leonardo paintings that have never before been seen in the UK. "Discussions are still ongoing with the owner," a spokeswoman said.
ARTnews magazine, which first reported the discovery this week, suggested that when the painting is auctioned it could sell for as much as $200 million, an amount that would smash previous records.
To date, the highest sum paid for a painting was a reputed $140 million for a Jackson Pollock work entitled No 5, 1948, which was auctioned by Sotheby's in 2006.



何かがある?謎の空洞と文字 ルネサンスの絵
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Medieval pilgrim's guide missing from Spain church
Spanish police are investigating the disappearance of the Codex Calixtinus, a valuable 12th century manuscript, from the Santiago de Compostela cathedral in northwestern region of Galicia, a spokesman said Thursday.

The manuscript is a collection of sermons and liturgical texts and served as a guide for the historical Camino de Santiago pilgrimage, which dates back to the Middle Ages.

The elaborately illustrated document disappeared from a safe deposit box in the cathedral last week.

Its suspected theft, only reported to police Wednesday, is considered a major loss for Spain's cultural and religious heritage.

Santiago Cathedral is the reputed burial place of Saint James the Greater, one of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ who according to legend arrived in Spain to preach Christianity.





「サンティヤーゴの巡礼路」柳宗玄 八坂書房盗まれたのコレかな?
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Mysterious Manuscript's Age Determined
The enigmatic Voynich Manuscript, a mysterious book that has frustrated codebreakers and linguists for a century, was penned on 15th-century parchment pages, according to U.S. researchers.

The dating, carried out last year but announced this week, makes the book a century older than scholars had previously thought and quashes some theories about its origin.

Taking its name from the rare book dealer Wilfrid Voynich, who discovered it in 1912 in the Villa Mondragone near Rome, the manuscript, which is about 250 pages long, makes "The Da Vinci Code" pale by comparison.

The book's estimated 250,000 characters are totally alien. Arranged in groups like words and sentences, some resemble Latin letters and Roman numerals; others are unlike any known language.

Moreover, the puzzling handwriting is surrounded by intricately drawn illustrations: plants that can't be identified, astrological symbols, elaborate networks of pipework, and naked ladies dancing or bathing in a strange green liquid.

"Who knows what's being written about in this manuscript. ... Just look at those drawings: Are they botanical? Are they marine organisms? Are they astrological? Nobody knows," said Greg Hodgins, an assistant research scientist and assistant professor in the University of Arizona's department of physics with a joint appointment at Arizona's School of Anthropology.

Working at the NSF-Arizona Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Hodgins was able to solve one of the many mysteries about the book, nailing down the time when the manuscript's pages were made.

In order to carbon-14 date the book, which is currently kept at the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library of Yale University and accessible online, Hodgins used four one-sixteenth of an inch by one inch samples from four different pages.

"The four pages were explicitly selected from different sections to try to determine if the book was written over many decades," Hodgins told Discovery News.

Hodgins' team was able to determine that the samples were made between 1404 and 1438 -- quite a narrow range for a radiocarbon measurement.

"Nature worked in our favor. During the early 15th century, radiocarbon levels were changing quite rapidly, so that allowed us to narrow the time frame. Sometimes atmospheric radiocarbon levels remain constant for many decades, even centuries. And in those periods, radiocarbon dating is much less precise," Hodgins said.

According to the researchers, the dating is reliable, since it was repeated four times with independent leaves of parchment.

"It is important to realize that we date when the animal lived, not when the book was made. One can not say how much time elapsed between the death of the animal and when the writer put pen to page. The book was clearly a lot of work and must have taken several years to complete," Hodgins said.

The dating might help in ruling out some hypotheses.

Ever since Wilfrid Voynich made the manuscript public in the hope of having it translated, theories flourished about the book's author and content.

Voynich, which claimed the book had belonged to the 16th-century Habsburg emperor Rudolf II, believed it was authored by Roger Bacon, a 13th-century English friar and scientist -- a theory which carbon dating has put to rest.

Other speculations ranged from the manuscript being the secret work of a religious sect, the only remaining document from a forgotten language, an unbreakable secret code, and the recipe for the "elixir of life."

Several experts also proposed that it was a deliberate hoax, possibly forged by John Dee, an English mathematician and astrologer at Rudolph's court.

Indeed, in 2003 computer scientist Gordon Rugg demonstrated that text resembling that in the book could be generated with a Cardan grille, an encryption device invented around 1550.

"Though I'm not yet 100 percent convinced by the precision of the dating, it's probably reasonably close;" Nick Pelling, the author of "the Curse of the Voynich," told Discovery News.

"By the mid-1920s, it was already apparent to some historians that some of the writing in the manuscript's margins had almost certainly been added in the 15th century, which means that the manuscript could not sensibly have been made after 1500," Pelling added.

"It's a shame that so many people have got stuck on 16th- or even 17th-century theories, particularly the 'hoax' theories, as these have helped deter mainstream historians from getting involved," Pelling said.



暗号解読マニアにはたまらないんでしょうが・・・。確か別なニュースでランダムに作ったとかなんとかと説明した記事を読んだような記憶が・・・・? はて、どうなったのかな?その後は?

「ヴォイニッチ写本の謎」ゲリー ケネディ、ロブ チャーチル 青土社
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,500-year-old church found in Israel
HIRBET MADRAS, Israel — Israeli archaeologists presented a newly uncovered 1,500-year-old church in the Judean hills on Wednesday, including an unusually well-preserved mosaic floor with images of lions, foxes, fish and peacocks.

The Byzantine church located southwest of Jerusalem, excavated over the last two months, will be visible only for another week before archaeologists cover it again with soil for its own protection.

The small basilica with an exquisitely decorated floor was active between the fifth and seventh centuries A.D., said the dig's leader, Amir Ganor of the Israel Antiquities Authority. He said the floor was "one of the most beautiful mosaics to be uncovered in Israel in recent years."
"It is unique in its craftsmanship and level of preservation," he said.

Archaeologists began digging at the site, known as Hirbet Madras, in December. The Antiquities Authority discovered several months earlier that antiquities thieves had begun plundering the ruins, which sit on an uninhabited hill not far from an Israeli farming community.

Though an initial survey suggested the building was a synagogue, the excavation revealed stones carved with crosses, identifying it as a church. The building had been built atop another structure around 500 years older, dating to Roman times, when scholars believe the settlement was inhabited by Jews.
Hewn into the rock underneath that structure is a network of tunnels that archaeologists believe were used by Jewish rebels fighting Roman armies in the second century A.D.

Stone steps lead down from the floor of church to a small burial cave, which scholars suggest might have been venerated as the burial place of the Old Testament prophet Zecharia.
Ganor said the church would remain covered until funding was obtained to open it as a tourist site.

Israel boasts an exceptionally high concentration of archaeological sites, including Crusader, Islamic, Byzantine, Roman, ancient Jewish and prehistoric ruins.








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Cleopatra may not have been ancient Egypt's only female pharaoh of the Ptolemaic dynasty -- Queen Arsinoë II, a woman who competed in and won Olympic events, came first, some 200 years earlier, according to a new study into a unique Egyptian crown.

After analyzing details and symbols of the crown worn by Arsinoë and reinterpreting Egyptian reliefs, Swedish researchers are questioning Egypt's traditional male-dominated royal line. They suggest that Queen Arsinoë II (316-270 B.C.) was the first female pharaoh belonging to Ptolemy's family -- the dynasty that ruled Egypt for some 300 years until the Roman conquest of 30 B.C.

While researchers largely agree on Arsinoë's prominence -- she was deified during her lifetime and honored for 200 years after her death -- the new study suggests she was in fact an Egyptian pharaoh with a role similar to the more famous Hatshepsut and Cleopatra VII.

One of the great women of the ancient world, Arsinoë was the daughter of Ptolemy I (366–283 B.C.), a Macedonian general under Alexander the Great who later became ruler of Egypt and founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty to which Cleopatra belonged.

With a life marked by dynastic murders, intrigue, sex and greed, Arsinoë may have been the most outstanding of Cleopatra's female predecessors.

"She was no ordinary woman. She fought in battles, and even participated in the Olympics, where she won three events for harnessed horses," Maria Nilsson, from the University of Gothenburg, told Discovery News.

Married at the age of 16 to Lysimachus of Thrace, a 60-year-old general of Ptolemy I, Arsinoë earned great wealth and honors during her time in Greece.

When, 18 years later, Lysimachus died, she married her half-brother, Ptolemy Keraunus. The marriage then ended abruptly after Keraunus killed two of Arsinoë's three sons.

Arsinoë then returned to Egypt and married her brother King Ptolemy II, her junior by eight years.

A crown, which has never been found, but is depicted on statues and carved stone reliefs, was created especially for her.

Nilsson analyzed 158 Egyptian relief scenes dating from Arsinoë's lifetime to Emperor Trajan, spanning about 400 years, studying every detail of the crown, including hieroglyphic titles and relief scenes.

She found that the crown differed from the usual Egyptian royal headdress such as the khepresh (or blue crown), the white crown, the red crown, the double crown, the double feather plume and atef (or ostrich feather) crown.

Instead, it was made of four main elements: the red crown, symbolizing the rule of Lower Egypt, the ram horns, connected primarily with the ram god of Egypt, Amon, the cow horns and solar disc, symbolizing the goddess Hathor and the harmony between male and female, and the double feather plume, another important symbol of Amon.

According to Nilsson, these symbols show that Arsinoë's crown was created for a living queen who was supposed to be a high priestess, a goddess and the ruler of Lower Egypt at the same time.

"It means that she was proclaimed female pharaoh during her lifetime. She co-ruled Egypt, as the king of Lower Egypt, with her brother-husband Ptolemy II, king of Upper Egypt," Nilsson said.

Put on a level with the ancient goddesses Isis and Hathor, Arsinoë was considered a god during her lifetime and was honored for 200 years after her death at 45. A special shrine, the Arsinoëion, was built in her honor at Alexandria, and a festival, the Arsinoëia, was created for her.

Found in at least 27 variations, Arsinoë's symbolic crown was later worn by Ptolemaic queens Cleopatra III and Cleopatra VII and also used as a template by several male Ptolemy descendants.

"This profound study opens a new field of research and shows that the other Ptolemaic queens, especially the Cleopatras, tended to imitate Arsinoë II in their iconographic elements," Mona Haggag, professor of classical archaeology at Alexandria University, Egypt, told Discovery News.

According to Carole Gillis, associate professor at the department of archaeology and ancient history at Lund University, Sweden, the study is important as it reveals that the Queen wore the crown in her own lifetime, in public view, with its symbols clearly understandable for everyone.

"This Queen was indeed a living King," Gillis told Discovery News.


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Da Vinci Manuscript Fragment Found In French Library
Nantes, France (AHN) - A fragment of a manuscript written by Renaissance artist, scientist and thinker Leonardo da Vinci has been discovered in a storage of a public library in Nantes, France.

The texts on the yellowed piece of paper were written from right to left and were in an unknown language.

Experts are now deciphering the words, according to Agnes Marcetteau, head of the Nantes library.

The script has been stored for one-and-a-half centuries before a journalist tracked it down after its location was mentioned in a biography of Da Vinci.

The script was among 5,000 documents donated by wealthy collector Pierre-Antoine Labouchère to the library in 1872.

It was in the same Labouchere collections that an unseen score by composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was discovered in 2008.


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'Revelation of the Magi' an Ancient Manuscript Lost for Centuries in the Vatican Library Reveals Eyewitness Account of the Christmas Story
Theologian Brent Landau presents the ancient account of Melchior, Caspar, and Balthazar, the three “wise men” who journeyed to Bethlehem to greet the birth of Jesus. The Revelation of the Magi offers the first-ever English translation of an ancient Syriac manuscript written in the second to third century after the birth of Christ and safeguarded for generations in the Vatican Library.

In REVELATION OF THE MAGI: The Lost Tale of the Wise Men’s Journey to Bethlehem(HarperOne; November 2010, Hardcover), religion scholar and expert in ancient languages, Brent Landau Th.D, provides the first English translation of an ancient Syriac manuscript, along with analysis and insight into who might have written it, and why.
The tale of the Magi is a familiar and beloved part of the traditional Christmas story: three kings from the East who followed the star of Bethlehem to offer gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh to the newborn baby Jesus. But what do Biblical texts actually tell us about these mysterious visitors? The nativity scenes, the crèches, Christmas plays, the hymns we hear on the radio—all of these are based on only a few verses found in the Bible. The Gospel of Matthew provides a brief account of the Magi’s visit, yet leaves many basic questions unanswered. In fact, we know very little about these three strange men from the East who miraculously arrived at Jesus’s birth.
Now, an ancient text—told from the perspective of the three Wise Men themselves—reveals another, little-known version of this story. This eighth-century manuscript has languished for centuries in the Vatican Library, but through the determined persistence of a young scholar, Brent Landau, this astonishing discovery has been translated into English for the very first time.
With REVELATION OF THE MAGI, we now have a window into the Magi’s world. Readers will learn of the Magi’s prophecies, their startling visitation in the form of a star, their long journey to Bethlehem from the far East land of Shir, their skeptical reception by Mary, the teachings they receive from the baby Jesus, and their joyous return to their homeland to spread the good news.
This ancient version of the Christmas story is guaranteed to astonish and delight. All the drama and intrigue of the brief description of Jesus’ birth in the gospel of Matthew is filled out in greater, more colorful detail in the Revelation of the Magi, offering for the first time the complete story of these beloved characters.
This rich narrative also raises larger questions about the mission of Christianity as a whole, issues which Landau explains “are of potential importance for anyone who considers herself or himself religious, spiritual, or simply interested in theological questions.”
BRENT LANDAU received his Th.D. from Harvard University Divinity School and is an expert in ancient biblical languages and literature. He currently teaches in the Religious Studies Department at the University of Oklahoma, and lives with his wife in Norman, Oklahoma.
“Of the many earliest Christian documents recently discovered inside sealed earthen pots or on forgotten library shelves, Revelation of the Magi is by far the most fascinating. Landau’s presentation—bright and sharp as a gemstone—emphasizes the unique challenge and radical depth of this ancient text’s theology.” — John Dominic Crossan, author of The Greatest Prayer
“Revelation of the Magi should be of interest to not only biblical scholars but also students of the Christian story who want to know more about these elusive fellows." — Booklist
The Lost Tale of the Wise Men’s Journey to Bethlehem
By Brent Landau
HarperOne, an Imprint of HarperCollins Publishers
Hardcover | $22.99 | 176 Pages | ISBN 9780061947032
November 2010




ラベル: マギ ニュース
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Morgan Library Reopens After $4.5 Million Face-Lift
【WNYC Radioより、以下転載】
The Morgan Library Museum in Manhattan reopens to the public on Saturday after a $4.5 million restoration of its ornate interior.

The building once housed the private study and library of financier Pierpont Morgan. He collected rare objects, including illuminated medieval manuscripts, and drawings by Rembrandt and Leonardo da Vinci.

When the library reopens, the North Room, the intimate office of the Morgan’s first director, Belle da Costa Greene, will be accessible to the public for the first time. The room has been reconfigured as a permanent exhibition space for more than 200 objects from the Ancient Near East, Egypt, Greece, and Rome.

“Those objects have been at the Morgan for more than 100 years,” said the library's director, William Griswold. “They were collected by Pierpont Morgan, and only a handful of them have ever been on display. They have been in storage, in a vault underneath the main Gilbert Court of our Renzo Piano expansion.”

Key components of the upgrade include new exhibition cases to house rotating exhibits from the Morgan's collection, the restoration of period furniture and fixtures, cleaning the walls and ornamentation, and installing new lighting throughout the building.

“My favorite part of the renovation is the lighting,” says Griswold. “It is so extraordinary, and I think it is wonderful that we were able to reinstall the original chandeliers in the North Room and in the the East Room, which are spectacular! They were taken down at some point in the 20th century and nearly forgotten, and they are so beautiful.”

This is the first major restoration of the space in more than 100 years.
一度、是非行ってみたいと思っているモーガン・ライブラリーの再公開です♪ わ~い♪





「The Hours of Catherine of Cleves」John Plummer George Braziller
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日経新聞 経済教室「金融機能の健全化急げ」2010年10月15日

2010年10月15日の日経新聞 経済教室の切抜きより。「ゼロ金利復活 その効果は」


=国内のデフレ不況の構造 ← 人口の高齢化と利子所得の消滅







と同時に、日本がモノを作らなくなった時、この何にも資源のない国で先があるのでしょうかね? 介護や医療が必要なことは分かりますが、大学卒や院卒の人間を重点的に老人介護などの分野に人割り当てて、この国は、どこから稼ぐのでしょう?

介護サービスで特許取るの? 介護の工場建てるの? 介護サービスを輸出するの?

別に介護じゃなくてもいいのですが、医療にしろ、農業にしろ、この日本で国民全体を養っていく外貨をどこで稼ぐのでしょうか? 非製造業部門を肥大化させても、現在国家のある富を消費させるだけで(それはそれで確かに経済は回転するの分かりますが)、新たなる富をどこで生み出すのでしょうか?





勝てないから、や~めたで済むのは、どっかのゆとりじゃないんですから! 働いたら負けかな?ではなくて、競争したら負けかな?なんて事を言っている場合じゃない気がするんだけどなあ~。

日経新聞 経済教室「比較サイト普及とネット上での価格形成」2008年11月28日
日本経済新聞(2009年4月29日)経済教室 信頼揺らぐ日本版REITの再生 鑑定評価の全面開示を
「週刊 金融財政事情 2008年7月7日号」
「週刊 金融財政事情 2008年7月7日号」補足メモ
ラベル:経済 日経
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The Dead Sea scrolls, containing some of the oldest-known surviving biblical texts, are to go online as part of a collaboration between Israeli antiquities authorities and Google, developers said on Tuesday.

The $3.5-million project by the Israeli Antiquities Authority and the internet giant's local R&D division aims to use space-age technology to produce the clearest renderings yet of the ancient scrolls and make them available free of charge to the public.

"This is the most important discovery of the 20th century, and we will be sharing it with the most advanced technology of the next century," IAA project director Pnina Shor told reporters in Jerusalem.

The IAA will begin by using multi-spectral imaging technology developed by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration to produce high-resolution images of the sometimes-faded texts that may reveal new letters and words.

They will then partner with Google to place the images online in a searchable database complemented by translation and other scholarly tools.

"Imagine a world where everybody with an internet connection is able to access the most important works of human history," Google's Israel R&D director Yossi Mattias said at the same press conference.

He said the project would build on similar efforts by Google to put the public domain material of several European libraries online.

Shor said the first images should be posted online in the next few months, with the project completed within five years.

"From the minute all of this will go online there will be no need to expose the scrolls anymore, and anyone in his office or (on) his couch will be able to see it," she said.

The 900 biblical and other manuscripts, comprising some 30,000 fragments, were discovered between 1947 and 1956 in the Qumran caves above the Dead Sea and photographed in their entirety with infra-red technology in the 1950s.

The parchment and papyrus scrolls contain Hebrew, Greek and Aramaic writing, and include several of the earliest-known texts from the Bible, including the oldest surviving copy of the Ten Commandments.

The oldest of the documents dates to the third century B.C. and the most recent to about 70 A.D., when Roman troops destroyed the Second Jewish Temple in Jerusalem.

The artifacts are housed at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem, where the larger pieces are shown at the dimly lit Shrine of the Book on a rotational basis in order to minimize damage from exposure.

When not on show, they are kept in a dark, climate-controlled storeroom in conditions similar to those in the Qumran caves, where the humidity, temperature and darkness preserved the scrolls for two millennia.





「死海文書の謎」マイケル・ペイジェント、リチャード・リー著 柏書房 感想1
「クムラン」エリエット・アベカシス著 角川文庫 

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 視察した授業では、写真のように教師が電子黒板を使い講義を展開。先生の説明の際にはタブレットPCを触らないよう、教師側にディスプレイを向けるのがこの学校のルールのようだ。写真は世界地理の授業だが、講義ではGoogle Earthなどを有効に活用し、視覚的にも分かりやすい講義が展開されていた。






 こうしたデジタル教科書導入を目指しているのは、韓国や日本だけでなく、もはや世界的な流れともいえる。そうした中で注目されているのは、教育用PCなどのハードウェアの特需と、デジタル教科書という新たなコンテンツ市場の拡大であることはいうまでもない。アップルのiPadを皮切りに、サムスンがAndroid搭載タブレットPC「Galaxy Tab」をすでに世界で発表しているほか、各社がiPadに似たタブレットPCを続々と発表しているのは、電子書籍への期待よりもむしろ、デジタル教科書需要に期待してのことかもしれない。







「ウェブで学ぶ」梅田望夫、飯吉透 筑摩書房
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Scientists to look for China's Bigfoot
A group of Chinese scientists and explorers is looking for international help to mount a new search for the country's answer to Bigfoot, known locally as the "Yeren," or "wild man."

Over the years, more than 400 people have claimed sightings of the half-man, half-ape Yeren in a remote, mountainous area of the central province of Hubei, state news agency Xinhua said on Saturday.

Expeditions in the 1970s and 1980s yielded hair, a footprint, excrement and a sleeping nest suspected of belonging to the Yeren, but there has been no conclusive proof, the report added.

Witnesses describe a creature that walks upright, is more than 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) tall and with grey, red or black hair all over its body, Xinhua said.

Now the Hubei Wild Man Research Association is looking for volunteers from around the world to join them on another expedition to look for the Yeren.

"We want the team members to be devoted, as there will be a lot a hard work in the process," Luo Baosheng, vice president of the group, told Xinhua.

But the team will have to come up with about 10 million yuan ($1.50 million) first, and is talking to companies and other bodies to secure the funding, so there is no timetable yet for when they may start, the report added.

China is no stranger to cryptozoology. Tales abound of mysterious, Loch Ness monster-like creatures living in lakes in remote parts of the country.

Tibetans have also long talked about the existence of the Yeti, or "Abominable Snowman," in the high mountains of their snowy homeland.



まあ、面白そうではありますね。中国の山海経に出てくるような妖怪・怪物がいた方が世界は楽しいと思いますし♪ その後のニュースに期待したいところではありますネ。(笑顔)
ラベル:ニュース 雪男
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【世界キリスト教情報 第1027信より、以下転載】








Wind could have parted Red Sea for Moses
Moses might not have parted the Red Sea, but a strong east wind that blew through the night could have pushed the waters back in the way described in biblical writings and the Koran, U.S. researchers reported on Tuesday.

Computer simulations, part of a larger study on how winds affect water, show wind could push water back at a point where a river bent to merge with a coastal lagoon, the team at the National Centre for Atmospheric Research and the University of Colorado at Boulder said.

"The simulations match fairly closely with the account in Exodus," Carl Drews of NCAR, who led the study, said in a statement.

"The parting of the waters can be understood through fluid dynamics. The wind moves the water in a way that's in accordance with physical laws, creating a safe passage with water on two sides and then abruptly allowing the water to rush back in."

Religious texts differ a little in the tale, but all describe Moses leading the Israelites out of Egypt ahead of a pharaoh's armies around 3,000 years ago. The Red Sea parts to let Moses and his followers pass safely, then crashes back onto the pursuers, drowning them.

Drews and colleagues are studying how Pacific Ocean typhoons can drive storm surges and other effects of strong and sustained winds on deep water.

His team pinpointed a possible site south of the Mediterranean Sea for the legendary crossing, and modelled different land formations that could have existed then and perhaps led to the accounts of the sea appearing to part.

The model requires a U-shaped formation of the Nile River and a shallow lagoon along the shoreline. It shows that a wind of 63 miles per hour, blowing steadily for 12 hours, could have pushed back waters 6 feet (2 metres) deep.

"This land bridge is 3-4 km (2 to 2.5 miles) long and 5 km (3 miles) wide, and it remains open for 4 hours," they wrote in the Public Library of Science journal PLoS ONE.

"People have always been fascinated by this Exodus story, wondering if it comes from historical facts," Drews said. "What this study shows is that the description of the waters parting indeed has a basis in physical laws."
ラベル:ニュース 聖書
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Lost language unearthed in a letter found in Peru
Archaeologists say scrawl on the back of a letter recovered from a 17th century dig site reveals a previously unknown language spoken by indigenous peoples in northern Peru.

A team of international archaeologists found the letter under a pile of adobe bricks in a collapsed church complex near Trujillo, 347 miles (560 km) north of Lima. The complex had been inhabited by Dominican friars for two centuries.

"Our investigations determined that this piece of paper records a number system in a language that has been lost for hundreds of years," Jeffrey Quilter, an archaeologist at Harvard's Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, told Reuters.

A photograph of the letter recently released by archaeologists shows a column of numbers written in Spanish and translated into a language that scholars say is now extinct.

"We discovered a language no one has seen or heard since the 16th or 17th century," Quilter said, adding that the language appears to have been influenced by Quechua, an ancient tongue still spoken by millions of people across the Andes.

He said it could also be the written version of a language colonial-era Spaniards referred to in historical writings as pescadora, for the fishermen on Peru's northern coast who spoke it.

So far no record of the pescadora language has been found.

The letter, buried in the ruins of the Magdalena de Cao Viejo church at the El Brujo Archaeological Complex in northern Peru, was discovered in 2008.

But Quilter said archaeologists decided to keep their discovery secret until the research showing evidence of the lost language was published this month in the journal American Anthropologist.

"I think a lot of people don't realise how many languages were spoken in pre-contact times," Quilter said. "Linguistically, the relationship between the Spanish conquistadors and the indigenous was very complex."

ラベル:ニュース 歴史
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【AFPBB NEWSより以下、転載】
イタリアの検察当局は21日、マネーロンダリング(資金洗浄)に関与した疑いでバチカンの財政管理組織「宗教事業協会(Istituto per le Opere di Religione、IOR、通称バチカン銀行)」幹部らに対する捜査を開始した。

 捜査対象とされているのは、エットレ・ゴティテデスキ(Ettore Gotti Tedeschi)総裁とIOR幹部の2人。さらにイタリア検察は、IORの資産2300万ユーロ(約26億円)を押収した。




「神の銀行家」変死、マフィアら無罪 謎解けぬまま…
「法王の銀行家」殺害で4人起訴 CNN
「法王暗殺」デイヴィッド・ヤロップ 文芸春秋
「バチカン・ミステリー」ジョン コーンウェル 徳間書店
法王の銀行家 2002年の映画
「マネーロンダリング入門」橘 玲 幻冬舎
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Israel finds rare 2,200-year-old gold coin
JERUSALEM — Archaeologists say they have uncovered the heaviest and most valuable gold coin ever found in Israel.
The 2,200-year-old coin weighs an ounce (28 grams) and was found at the Tel Kedesh site near the Lebanon border on June 22, according to Wednesday's statement from the antiquities authority.
It said this coin is six times the weight of most others from that era.
Donald Ariel, head of the antiquities authority coin department, said the coin dates to back to the rule of the Iraq-based Seleucid Empire, though it was minted by the rival Egyptian Ptolemies.
Ariel said the coin's image may represent Cleopatra I, wife of Ptolemy V. It is only the second gold Ptolemaic coin ever found in Israel. The first weighed just two grams (0.07 ounces).


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Several pieces of the world's oldest and largest unsolved jigsaw puzzle, a 2,200-year-old map of Rome made of thousands of marble fragments, could be unearthed next year following construction work for a new metro line near Rome's majestic forum area.

“This is a unique occasion to excavate the Forum of Peace, where the map once stood,” Rossella Rea, director of the Colosseum, told the Italian financial daily “Il Sole 24 Ore.”

Carved into marble slabs around 210 A.D., during the rule of the emperor Septimius Severus, the map was originally hung on a wall in the Templum Pacis (Temple of Peace), which stood in the middle of an enclosure called Forum of Peace.

The wall still survives today in a building near the 6th-century Church of Santi Cosma e Damiano. Rows of holes where the map was attached using bronze clamps can still be seen.

The enormous marble map detailed every building, street and staircase in second-century Rome, until it was partially ripped from the wall, probably to make lime for cement. What was left fell down and broke apart in hundreds of unrecognizable pieces.

Piecing the jigsaw puzzle together -- 1,186 fragments which cover only 10 to 15 percent the original map surface and are now kept in the Palazzo dei Conservatori of the Capitoline Museums in Rome -- has been one of the great unsolved problems of archaeology.

Renaissance scholars identified and assembled some 250 pieces, recognizing important landmarks such as the Colosseum and the Circus Maximum.

Recently, computer scientists and archaeologists at Stanford University have been using computer technologies in an attempt to reconstruct the remaining pieces of the map.

Given the way the map fell from its position on the wall, Rea and colleagues believe that several remaining fragments still lie around the site and can be unearthed during the unique dig.

But more treasures might come to light in an area that Rea considers "the most interesting among the imperial forums."

The centerpiece of the Forum of Peace was indeed the temple. Built in 71-75 A.D by Vespasian, the Temple of Peace celebrated the brutal pacification of the Jews and the destruction of the Temple at Jerusalem in 70 A.D.

Tons of gold, silver trumpets and gold candelabra were plundered from the Jerusalem temple and paraded through Rome' streets in triumph.

The moment was captured in a frieze carved into the Arch of Vespasian’s son, Titus, which clearly shows the menorah, the seven-branched temple candelabra that was the symbol of ancient Judaism, being exposed through the streets.

Between 75 A.D. and the early 5th century, the treasure, which helped finance the building of the Colosseum, was put on public display right in the Temple of Peace.

Although it is unlikely that fragments from the treasure are unearthed, the archaeologists hope to bring to light other precious remains from the Forum of Peace.

A space for culture and meditation adorned with a gallery of sculptures which had previously occupied Nero’s Golden Palace, the area featured a beautiful garden and large library, with a section entirely dedicated to medicine.

“We have recently found some of the foundation on which Nero’s sculptures stood. They bear the signatures of the artist who carved them,” said Rea.

"We might find some items related to the library, such as the bronze or ivory statuettes which portrayed the authors of the books and marked the various sections of the library. We also hope to recover some other fragments of the Forma Urbis map," Rea added.





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The man who 'sees' Virgin Mary every day
For almost 30 years, the Virgin Mary has been said to appear daily in Medjugorje - a small village in Bosnia-Hercegovina.
Six children first reported the apparition in June 1981, and although the Vatican has not yet recognised the miracle, it has not discouraged the faithful. The village is the fastest-growing Catholic pilgrimage site in the world.
Allan Little speaks to local people about the phenomenon, including a man who claims to see the Virgin Mary on a daily basis.



「日本の奇跡 聖母マリア像の涙」安田貞治 エンデルレ書店
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British X-Files reveal secret UFO study
Britain released hundreds of previously secret "UFO files" on Thursday, including a letter saying that Winston Churchill had ordered a 50-year cover-up of a wartime encounter between an unidentified flying object and military pilot.
The files, published by the National Archives, span decades and contain scores of witness accounts, sketches and classified briefing notes documenting mysterious sightings across Britain.
One Ministry of Defense note refers to a 1999 letter stating that a Royal Air Force plane returning from a mission in Europe during World War II was "approached by a metallic UFO."
The unidentified author of the letter says his grandfather attended a wartime meeting between Churchill and Dwight Eisenhower during which the two expressed concern over the incident and "decided to keep it secret."
The Ministry of Defense subsequently investigated the case but found no written record of the incident, the files say. In a 1999 note, the ministry said it "does not have any expertise or role in respect of 'UFO/flying saucer' matters or to the question of the existence or otherwise of extraterrestrial lifeforms, about which it remains totally open-minded."
Latest in a series of releases
Britain has been slowly releasing long-classified files related to sightings of mysterious craft in the skies above its cities, compiled and investigated by the Ministry of Defense over past decades.
Some cases subsequently received rational explanations, such as meteors burning up in the atmosphere, but many are unsolved.



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A 5th century monastery in the Black Sea may house the last remains of John the Baptist, the biblical prophet famous for baptizing Jesus.

Bulgarian archaeologists excavating under an ancient basilica last week unearthed a reliquary, or a container full of human relics.

Bone fragments of a human skull, hand and tooth were found inside.

Watch a video of the ceremony the archaeologists conducted to open the reliquary.

The monastery is located on Sveti Ivan island, just off the coast of Bulgaria's popular seaside town of Sozopol. The archaeologists believe that a date inscribed on the alabaster jar, June 24, is a good sign that the reliquary houses John the Baptist's remains.

June 24 is the day Christian's celebrate the birth of Jesus' contemporary.

But the Vatican is waiting for more information before making a statement about the find's validity.

Fabrizio Bisconti, superintendent of the Vatican Pontifical Commission of Sacred Archaeology, told CNN that the commission "will wait until a more thorough study has been conducted, including anthropological analysis, before it will express an opinion on the finding."

According to biblical lore, John the Baptist was beheaded by the first-century Galilean ruler, Herod Antipas, for renouncing Herod's divorce and subsequent remarriage to another woman.

Bisconti also told CNN that the Church believes John the Baptists remains are currently scattered around the world, rather than being housed in one location.





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Mona Lisa painting gives up more secrets to science






Science has pursued its fascination with the Mona Lisa once again, this time by applying X-ray techniques to understand the shadowing in her face.

The painting was one of seven Leonardo Da Vinci masterpieces investigated by Philippe Walter and colleagues.

Their investigation describes the ultra-thin layers of glaze and pigment used to achieve seamless transitions from light to dark.

The work is reported in the journal Angewandte Chemie.

It is said to provide new information on the technique known as "sfumato", which Da Vinci and other Renaissance painters used to produce delicate gradations in tones or colours across the canvas.

"One of the most striking things you will notice in front of one of these paintings is that you can't see any brushstrokes, any fingerprints," observed co-researcher Dr Laurence de Viguerie.

"Everything is so fine, everything is blended. That's why it was said these paintings were impossible to analyse because they don't give you any easy clues," she told BBC News.

Previous research has already established key aspects of sfumato, but Philippe Walter's group has provided additional insights on how Da Vinci achieved this effect.

The team used X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry to determine the composition and thickness of each painted layer.

Crucially, XRF is a non-destructive technique - it does not require samples to be lifted off the canvas.

Nine faces (including Mona Lisa's) were assessed from seven paintings produced by Da Vinci covering a 40-year period in his career.

The scientists were able to detail the different recipes used by the master to make the shadows in the faces. These recipes were characterised by a technique - the use of glaze layers or a very thin paint - and by the nature of the pigments or additives, they said.

It is clear from the analysis that Da Vinci was able to apply glazes in layers just a couple micrometres (thousandths of a millimetre) thick, building up to a total thickness of no more than 30 to 40 micrometres.

The study was conducted in the rooms of the Louvre Museum in Paris where the Mona Lisa is kept.

The other paintings included in the research were Virgin of the Rocks, Saint John the Baptist, Annunciation, Bacchus, Belle Ferronnière, Saint Anne, the Virgin, and the Child.

The Bacchus is thought to be the work of Da Vinci's studio, and so may not have been produced solely by the great master.

Philippe Walterand Laurence de Viguerie are affiliated to the Laboratoire du Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France.



ルネサンス期の巨匠画家レオナルド・ダ・ヴィンチ(Leonardo da Vinci)が「モナリザ(Mona Lisa)」など一連の作品で、繊細なトーンによる写実性を実現した「スフマート」と呼ばれるぼかし技法について、仏ルーブル美術館(Louvre Museum)の研究員らによるチームがX線スキャナーによる研究で、その奥深さに迫った。



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出たよ! 日本の新聞お得意の曲解って奴!





ラベル:アート ニュース
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Italians may have found Caravaggio's bones
ROME - Italian researchers believe they have found the remains of Caravaggio, but 400 years later some of the mysteries surrounding the death of the master artist may never be solved.

After a year of digging and analyzing centuries-old bones, the researchers said Wednesday they have identified a set of bones they believe to be Caravaggio's, though they admit they can never be 100 percent certain.

They think Caravaggio may have died from sunstroke while weakened by syphilis.

The set of bones ― a fragment of the frontal part of the skull, two jaw pieces, a femur and a fragment of the sacrum, or the bone at the base of the spine ― were displayed in Ravenna, a northern Italian city where most of the analyses have been carried out. Kept inside a rectangular plexiglass case, the bones rested on a silk red cushion.

Caravaggio died in Porto Ercole, a beach town on the Tuscan coast, in 1610. At 39, he had been a celebrity painter and led a dissolute life of street brawls, booze and encounters with prostitutes. His last days are shrouded in mystery.

The team of scientists and historians dug up and studied bones found in Porto Ercole's crypts, and combed through archives in search of papers documenting Caravaggio's movements. The group conducted carbon dating, DNA tests and other analyses on the bones, until they singled out one set of fragments ― "Find No. 5."

"There can't be the scientific certainty because when one works on ancient DNA, it is degraded," Giorgio Gruppioni, an anthropologist on the team, told The Associated Press. "But only in one set of bones did we find all the elements necessary for it to be Caravaggio's ― age, period in which he died, gender, height."

The DNA comparison was conducted between the bones that had been identified and that of some possible male relatives in Caravaggio, a small town in northern Italy where the painter ― whose real name was Michelangelo Merisi ― was born in 1571. Caravaggio had no known children, therefore no direct descendants.

Gruppioni said they identified a genetic combination in those whose last name was Merisi or Merisio. Because the bones are old and the DNA degraded, not all genetic characteristics could be confirmed.

Still, the evidence pointed to them. They belonged to a man who died between 38 and 40 years of age and at a time around 1610. The bones also presented a high level of lead and other metals associated with painting. Sediment found on the bones was also compatible with the deeper, older layers of terrain inside the crypt ― the level where such old bones were thrown, the researchers said.

The bones belonged to a robust man. Caravaggio, at 170 centimeters (5 feet 7 inches), was tall by the standards of his time.

The cause of Caravaggio's death has been the subject of much conjecture, some of it nourished by the adventurous existence that the artist led. Possibilities raised by scholars range from malaria to syphilis to murder at the hands of one of the many enemies Caravaggio made over the years.

The researchers believe that Caravaggio may have died from sunstroke, but Gruppioni said sunstroke leaves no trace on the bones, therefore there is no scientific certainty.

The project wrapped up just as Italy marks the 400 anniversary since Caravaggio's death, remembering him as a revolutionary artist who changed the history of modern painting.








さすがは、聖遺物だらけのお国柄でしょうか? こんなのいくらでもありそう(笑顔)。

曹操の陵墓発見 中国河南省、遺骨も出土
日泰寺 本物のお釈迦様の遺骨(仏舎利)があるお寺
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Ancient Egyptian mayor’s ‘lost tomb’ found
CAIRO - Archaeologists have discovered the 3,300-year-old tomb of the ancient Egyptian capital's mayor, whose resting place had been lost under the desert sand since 19th-century treasure hunters first carted off some of its decorative wall panels, officials announced Sunday.

Ptahmes, the mayor of Memphis, also served as army chief, overseer of the treasury and royal scribe under Seti I and his son and successor, Ramses II, in the 13th century B.C.

The discovery of his tomb earlier this year in a New Kingdom necropolis at Saqqara, south of Cairo, solves a riddle dating back to 1885, when foreign expeditions made off with pieces of the tomb, whose location was soon after forgotten.

"Since then it was covered by sand and no one knew about it," said Ola el-Aguizy, the Cairo University archaeology professor who led the excavation. "It is important because this tomb was the lost tomb."

Some of the artifacts ended up in museums in the Netherlands, the United States and Italy as well as the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, providing the only clues about the missing tomb.

A team from Cairo University's archaeology department found the tomb during new excavations of the area that started in 2005, el-Aguizy said.

The inner chambers of the large, temple-style tomb and Ptahmes' mummy remain undiscovered.

In the side sanctuaries and other chambers they uncovered, archaeologists found a vivid wall engraving of people fishing from boats made of bundles of papyrus reeds. There were also amulets and fragments of statues.

Copyright 2010 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.






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Turin Shroud goes on display for first time in 10 years
The Turin Shroud, which is believed by some Christians to be the burial cloth of Jesus Christ, has gone on display for the first time in 10 years.
The shroud is expected to draw some two million visitors to the northern Italian city over the next few weeks.
The cloth shows the faint image of a bearded man with stains of blood on his hands and feet.
Tests in 1988 suggested it dated from the medieval period but those carbon dating findings are contested.
Measuring just over 4m x 1m (14ft x 3.5ft), the frail linen sheet shows an image of a man's body complete with bloodstains and what appear to be wounds from crucifixion.
Millions of Christians believe the cloth is the burial shroud of Jesus.
In 1988, special tests dated it to between 1260 and 1390, suggesting it was a medieval forgery.
But since then, other scientists have cast doubt on those findings and appealed to the Vatican to allow new tests using more modern techniques.
Some two million people are expected to visit Turin Cathedral to see the shroud, which will be on public view for six weeks, kept in a bullet-proof and climate-controlled case.
Pope Benedict XVI is due to fly to Turin on 2 May to pray before the shroud.







Unshrouding the science of the Shroud
The exact history of Turin shroud, which has gone on display for the first time in 10 years, is hotly disputed. So what do we know about its authenticity?

It's perhaps the most controversial religious artefact in the world. The Shroud of Turin cloth that supposedly wrapped Jesus's body after the crucifixion and became imprinted with his image, has intrigued millions of believers and sceptics alike. Having gone on public display for the first time in a decade, the debate over its authenticity is set to resume.

Numerous historical references to Christ's shroud exist but the only reliable records for the one today housed in Turin Cathedral begin in the 16th Century. The herringbone woven cloth measuring 1.21m by 4.42m (4ftx14ft), is stained with human blood and appears to show the imprint of a crucified man. The most iconic aspect - the apparent image of Jesus's bearded face - is not easily distinguishable to the naked eye, and was only noticed at the end of the 19th Century in an amateur photograph.

But in 1988 the subject seemed to be closed. Carbon dating experts from universities in Oxford, Zurich and Arizona "proved" that the shroud originated in the 14th Century and thus could not be an imprint of Jesus.

And yet many now argue that process was flawed.

Ian Wilson, a historian who has written a number of books on the subject, believes the shroud could indeed be genuine.

"Through no fault of the labs the 1988 sample was taken from the most inadvisable place - the top left hand corner," he says. "Before 1840 the normal process of display was to have the cloth loose and held up by at least three bishops so the corners would have been contaminated."

Another doubt raised was that the sample may have been repaired with cotton strands. "A further problem was that the shroud was in a serious fire in 1532 and smoke introduces a lot of contaminants. All of these factors are ways that the carbon dating could have been skewed as it's not infallible," he argues.

Holes in wrists

Mr Wilson believes the type of weave used is more consistent with ancient than medieval times and that the medical evidence is compelling.

"It's true that thousands of people were crucified at the time of Jesus. But one singular thing about the crucifixion of Christ is the crown of thorns and on the shroud there are a whole series of puncture wounds where the scalp has bled."

And whereas every artist imagined Jesus crucified through the palms, the shroud indicates it was through the wrist, which is the only plausible way the body would have remained on the cross, he says.

But how to explain the photographic negative like print of Jesus's face?

"It is something very peculiar. The shroud is some kind of negative of the body it's wrapped up. So you can ask 'Was that the moment of resurrection?' That has to be speculation."

The Catholic church has always refused to take a position on the shroud's authenticity but it expects between 1.5 and two million people to visit and the Pope is due to attend on 2 May. Before it went on display, the Archbishop of Turin, Cardinal Severino Poletto, who is responsible for the shroud, signalled the symbolic importance it attaches to the object: "The Holy Shroud Exhibition is a spiritual and religious event, it is neither touristic nor commercial."

For his part Bruno Barberis, director of the International Centre of Sindonology in Turin, which is dedicated to the study of the Shroud, suspects the cloth is genuine.

"A lot of studies have proved that it's human blood for example - so it's not just done by a painter," he says. "It really is an image left by a real corpse. I think the probability is very high that it's genuine."

Map of cloth

The centre plans to produce "an accurate map of the cloth" to discern whether it was made from the same cloth or contains repairs. Once that has been completed the carbon dating will be repeated, he says.
Small samples taken from object and cleaned of contaminants
Material is then burnt to produce carbon dioxide
CO2 is converted into pure carbon, which is put through machine that measures trace amounts of carbon-14, an unstable isotope
All living organisms contain carbon-14 and when they die the isotope begins to deteriorate at given rate
This gives raw radiocarbon age which can be translated into a calendar age
Entire process takes at least two weeks Image shows phials and silver foil packet containing sample of the Turin Shroud for radiocarbon dating
Scientists take a different view though. Prof Gordon Cook, at the Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, rejects the idea that the sample may have been irrevocably damaged by human hands.

"Pre-treatment methods should get rid of the contamination," says Dr Cook, a professor of environmental geochemistry and a carbon dating expert. "The measurements were done by three really good radiocarbon labs so I've no doubt what they measured is the correct age."

The only question relates to whether the sample contained repairs rather than original material, he says.

Most of the scientists at the 1988 test have either died or retired. But one key witness remains - Dr Hans Arno Synal, who remembers the excitement well. At the time, a 30 year-old PhD student at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, he now heads up the university's ion beam physics laboratory, and believes that the mystery was solved back then.

"We applied very rigid procedures. If you'd had human contamination then you would have seen a difference between the different degrees of cleaning we did."

But there was no difference, he says. On the question of cotton repairs, he is sure that the textile experts would have picked up any discrepancy in material.

"I don't doubt that the sample has the same structure as the rest of the shroud. So much effort was put into the sample taking procedure."

In short, he is convinced that the object dates from the 14th Century. And yet that doesn't take away from the shroud's power to move people, he adds.

"This is something very special, a historical object whether it originated 2000 or 700 years ago. So I have no bad feelings about people going to see it. Maybe I'll go too. Why not? It's a very historical thing."

He has his own view about why some people are unwilling to accept the science. "It's clear the fibre can't be from Jesus's time. But the debate has not been stopped and maybe it never will. It goes beyond the science. There'll always be some who believe it's true."

Interestingly, it is not the Catholic church that insists the shroud is genuine but people outside it, he says. "Maybe some people want to have proof for the existence of God. But I don't think that's what this is about."

トリノ聖骸布、2010年に公開 ローマ法王発表
「トリノの聖骸布―最後の奇蹟」イアン・ウィルソン 文芸春秋
トリノの聖布 その秘密はまだベールの中
「聖骸布血盟」フリア・ナバロ ランダムハウス講談社
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Ancient Arabic inscription found in Jerusalem







JERUSALEM - A home renovation in Jerusalem's Old City has yielded a rare Arabic inscription offering insight into the city's history under Muslim rule, Israeli archaeologists said Wednesday.

The fragment of a 1,100-year-old plaque is thought to have been made by an army veteran to express his thanks for a land grant from the Caliph al-Muqtadir, whom the inscription calls "Emir of the Faithful."

Dating from a time when Jerusalem was ruled from Baghdad by the Abbasid empire, the plaque shows how rulers rewarded their troops and ensured their loyalty, archaeologists said.

The Abbasids conquered Jerusalem after numerous wars with the Fatimid empire in Egypt. The Abbasid caliphs valued Jerusalem as an Islamic holy site.

"The caliph probably granted estates as part of his effort to strengthen his hold over the territories within his control, including Jerusalem, just as other rulers did in different periods," said excavation director Annette Nagar.

The white marble plaque measures four inches by four inches and was found approximately 5 feet beneath the floor of a home in the Old City's Jewish Quarter.

The house's owner planned a renovation and ― as required by law ― brought archaeologists to carry out a salvage dig meant to prevent harm to valuable antiquities. The plaque has been removed from the site and is now in the hands of Israel's Antiquities Authority.

The writing was deciphered by Hebrew University professor Moshe Sharon, who traced it to 910, during the early part of al-Muqtadir's 24-year rule.

The finding will help scholars better understand 10th-century Jerusalem, populated by Muslims, Christians and Jews, and the methods used by Muslim rulers to solidify their control.
ラベル:ニュース 歴史
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'Malaria and weak bones' may have killed Tutankhamun

私が見ていた限りでは、BBCが早かったかも? 日本のTVでも二日後ぐらいに内容の無いニュースを流してたけど、相変わらず、世界から遅れてるなあ~(苦笑)。



The Egyptian "boy king" Tutankhamun may well have died of malaria after the disease ravaged a body crippled by a rare bone disorder, experts say.

The findings could lay to rest conspiracy theories of murder.

The scientists in Egypt spent the last two years scrutinising the mummified remains of the 19-year old pharaoh to extract his blood and DNA.

This revealed traces of the malaria parasite in his blood, the Journal of the American Medical Association says.

Shrouded in mystery

Ever since Howard Carter's discovery of Tutankhamun's intact tomb in the Valley of the Kings in 1922, scholars have speculated over why the 19-year old 'boy king' died so young.

Some believe he was killed by a fall from his chariot. Others suspect foul play.

Because he died so young, and left no heirs, scholars have speculated that, instead, he may have suffered from a disease that ran in his family.

Artifacts have shown the royalty of that era as having a somewhat curvaceous and rather feminine appearance, which some say would be typical of inherited conditions like Marfan syndrome.

But Egypt's chief archaeologist Dr Zahi Hawass rejects these explanations.

He and his team have painstakingly picked over the remains of Tutankhamun and 10 other royal mummies from his family - two of which they have now confirmed using genetic fingerprinting to be the young king's grandmother and most probably his father.

They say there is no compelling evidence to suggest King Tut or indeed any of his royal ancestors had Marfan's - the voluptuous artefacts, they believe, are a red herring and merely reflect the fashion of the time.

But they did confirm that the king may have had some form of inherited disease, a rare bone disorder affecting the foot called Kohler disease II, as well as a club foot and a curvature of the spine.

Scientific 'proof'

Although this was not his ultimate downfall, it would explain why among his possessions there were sticks and staves that could have been used as walking canes, say the researchers.

Not long before his death, the king fractured his leg, and the scientists think this was important.

The bone did not heal properly and began to die. This would have left the young king frail and susceptible to infection.

What finished him off, they believe, was a bout of malaria on top of his general ill health.

The scientists found traces of the malaria parasite in the pharaoh's blood - the oldest mummified genetic proof for malaria in ancient populations that we have.

Dr Hawass and his team say: "A sudden leg fracture possibly introduced by a fall might have resulted in a life-threatening condition when a malaria infection occurred.

"Seeds, fruits and leaves found in the tomb, and possibly used as medical treatment, support this diagnosis."

Dr Bob Connolly, a senior lecturer in physical anthropology at Liverpool University, has examined Tutankhamun himself.

He said the researchers had been incredibly lucky to be able to extract the DNA for study.

"His is not a beautifully preserved mummy. It's a charred wreck. Hawass and his team have been incredibly clever and lucky to do this."

He said it was possible that the king died from malaria, but he personally doubted it.

"Just because he had the parasite in his blood does not necessarily mean he suffered from malaria or died from it. It may not have caused him any trouble."

"I still think he died from a fall from his chariot. His chest cavity was also caved in and he had broken ribs."
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Rumors abound that new Leonardo da Vinci painting has been found in Boston
【The Washington Postより以下、転載】
Is the world about to gain another Leonardo da Vinci painting?

The multitasking Renaissance genius who produced the most famous portrait in the world -- Mona somebody -- left us only 10 to 20 other paintings. Yet if current whispers bear out about a picture in Boston, that number may increase by one more. Art experts say it's the equivalent of stumbling upon a surprise Shakespeare play or a lost Homeric epic.

At this point, we have only a tantalizing mystery -- perhaps the unspooling of a new Da Vinci code -- dangling on the slender thread of secrets and a handful of clues that emerged this week:

-- The Washington Post receives a tip from a source who wishes to remain anonymous that the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, has in its possession a painting believed to be by the Italian master, and is in the process of authenticating it. Were it deemed a true Leonardo, such a painting would be only the second one in all the Americas. (The first hangs here, in the National Gallery of Art.)

-- We put a call in to Frederick Ilchman, the Boston museum's Renaissance curator. Does he have such a painting? "Can't tell you anything about it, sorry," he says, before hanging up. (Do we detect a yes in that click?)

-- We try Katie Getchell, the museum's curatorial deputy director, who says through a spokeswoman: "We don't comment on works that the MFA may be studying or considering for acquisition." Asked if this meant that the MFA is, in fact, studying a possible da Vinci painting for purchase, spokeswoman Dawn Griffin says she can say nothing more.

-- We ask Renaissance painting expert Miguel Falomir Faus if he knows anything about the painting. He tells us in an e-mail that he had lunch Tuesday with New York University art history professor Alex Nagel in New York, "and he talked [to] me about the new da Vinci." Faus adds, however, "I have not seen the work (I don't even know its subject)."

-- Nagel, for his part, further stirs the pot with his own e-mail to us: "How can I comment on a painting I haven't seen? Do you have a photo?"

No, we don't have a photo. We have an imagination, though, and it's taken off for some beautifully lit marbled hall, where we stand before a swirl of pigment -- a plump infant? another half-smile under almond eyes? -- from the enchanted left hand of da Vinci himself. The man who changed the course of Western painting with his exquisite skill, warmth of feeling and boundary-pushing. We didn't need Dan Brown's breathless bestseller "The Da Vinci Code" to cast this artist in tantalizing shadows. They were already there.

"If you want to invoke some idea of mystery, of genius, of secrets, then Leonardo's your man," says Nagel, who decides to comment after all. (That is, he has plenty to say about da Vinci and about the perils of authentication, but he wants it again made clear: He has not seen the painting. If there is one!)

Could any putative discovery intrigue us as much? Why does da Vinci fascinate us so, 500 years after his death? For one thing, his outsize talents raced in all directions. A tinkerer and a polymath, he was a sculptor, architect, inventor, scientist, writer and musician in addition to being a painter, and you could slap a few more titles in there as well.

He went highbrow and low: He crafted parade floats and cathedral domes, designed helicopters far ahead of their time. He gave the world its best-known religious painting -- "The Last Supper" -- and also worked to stock Italy's war chest, designing defense systems. For the king of France, he whipped up what sounds like a darling mechanical lion that sprouted lilies. Legend has it that da Vinci died in the king's arms -- a disputed story that only endears him to us all the more, like the tales of how he bought up captive birds in order to set them free, and the fog surrounding his sexuality. (Those shades of eroticism and androgyny in his portraits!)

His paintings brought him the most renown, few as they are. Among them: the instantly recognizable "Mona Lisa," two "Virgin of the Rocks," a "St. Jerome in the Wilderness," an "Adoration of the Magi" -- works without precedent for their innovative varnishing and binding techniques, their perfect replication of muscle, bone and human expression, their delicate tones.

His meticulousness is one reason for the low production -- but so was his drive to innovate. "He was not interested in the practical matters of completing a job," says Nagel. "He was interested in doing things that had never been done before."

It was a huge deal when the National Gallery landed its da Vinci oil, titled "Ginevra de' Benci." It was purchased in 1967 for $5 million, at the time the highest price ever paid for a work of art. When J. Carter Brown, the National Gallery's director, got his hands on it, his counterpart and archrival at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Thomas Hoving, "was beside himself," The Post's Matt Schudel reported after Hoving's death earlier this month.

"I still wake up occasionally at 3 in the morning and say, 'We should have gotten that!' " Hoving said. "When I'm an old man, I'll be muttering, 'Leonardo,' and people in the nursing home will say, 'How sad, he thinks he's Leonardo.' "

The fact is, where da Vinci is concerned, hype and art have become inextricably entwined. "It would change the fortunes of the MFA if they had a real Leonardo," says Nagel, the art history professor. " . . . If you can make this definitely a work by Leonardo, a lot of money is going to be changing hands. When that's the dominant concern, there's great pressure to want something to be the real thing."

A da Vinci discovery made news in October, when a drawing thought to be that of an unknown 19th-century German artist was attributed to the Italian master, and valued at more than $150 million. But doubts remain among some experts about its authenticity, which rested in part on a fingerprint.

Stamping any new finding as definitively da Vinci's -- he was, after all, one of the world's most copied artists -- would be exceedingly difficult, says John Brewer, author of "The American Leonardo: A Tale of Obsession, Art and Money."

"We all have this fantasy that we've gotten better and better at authenticating," he says. But the new technologies -- forensics, infrared imaging and so forth -- "will only tell you whether it's not by someone. Scientific technology is good at spotting bad fakes. But to be able to say yes as opposed to saying no, that depends on the cultured eye of the expert. And that's intuitive."

For the man whose incomprehensible gifts unleashed frauds, endless speculation and churning thrillers into the modern era, mystery seems fated to be part of his story.




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曹操の陵墓発見 中国河南省、遺骨も出土
ラベル:ニュース 歴史
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曹操の陵墓発見 中国河南省、遺骨も出土

caocao1.jpg caocao.jpg

曹操の陵墓発見 中国河南省、遺骨も出土









あまり真剣に受け止めず、門外漢としては、歴史への憧れとして楽しみ&期待したいところですね。本物ならば、世界遺産とかがまた一つ中国に増えるんじゃない? だったら、言ってみたいかもしれません。



曹操 Cao Cao
三国時代 Three Kingdoms period

Tomb of Cao Cao, early ruler, is found
【Shanghai Daily.comより以下転載】
ACCORDING to legend, the tomb of Cao Cao - third-century warlord and ruler of northern China - was protected by 72 decoys to keep its whereabouts secret.

But real-life archeologists have found it.

The grave of Cao (AD 155-220), the founder of Wei Kingdom - the strongest and most prosperous state during the Three Kingdoms period (AD 208-280), was discovered in Anyang City in central China's Henan Province, archeologists announced yesterday in Beijing.

According to Chen Ailan, director of the Henan cultural heritage administration, the discovered tomb, close to the former site of Wei's capital Luoyang, was confirmed as Cao's.

The 740-square-meter tomb, a size appropriate for a king, was confirmed to have been built at the time of Wei.

A stone tablet discovered at the scene said it belonged to the king of Wei, and the remains in the tomb were determined to be of a man in his 60s. Cao died at 65.

Minister, hero

Two women's bodies were also discovered in the tomb.

Cao is remembered for his outstanding military and political talents - "capable minister in peaceful times, righteous hero in chaotic times," as one scholar put it.

He is also known for his poems - some included in China's middle school textbooks.

Characters based on Cao appear in major traditional Chinese operas, including Peking Opera and Sichuan Opera. A Chinese proverb, "speak of Cao Cao and he appears," is the equivalent of "speak of the devil" in English.

In the well-known historical fiction, "The Romance of Three Kingdoms," a fictionalized Cao says, "Better for me to wrong the world than for the world to wrong me."

The book secured his position as a villain in Chinese literature.

A famous tale said Cao was buried secretly and protected by 72 fake tombs to prevent raiders' invasion.

But while the location of his tomb was lost to history, it used to be clear and was visited by many well known historic figures, including the Tang Dynasty Emperor Li Shimin (AD 618-907).

No luxury decorations were found in the tomb, but more than 250 weapons, pieces of armor, pottery and other articles were confirmed as Cao's everyday belongings.
こちらの記事を読むと、有名な伝説では、墓荒らしを避ける為に、72個のフェイクの墓で守られていたらしいのですが・・・フェイクの方だったりして? エジプトの王家の墓もそうですが、墓荒らしは古代から頭を悩ます問題だったんですね。

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Not so secret: New book features 105 documents from Vatican archives
【The Pilotより以下転載】
With millions of documents filling almost 53 miles of shelf space, the Vatican Secret Archives obviously still hold some secrets.

Despite the aura of mystery surrounding the archives, the Vatican actually encourages academics to research its holdings and has worked with a Belgian publishing house to bring 105 of the most important, or curious, documents to the public.

The coffee-table book, "The Vatican Secret Archives," was published by VdH Books in Dutch, English, French and Italian.

Cardinal Raffaele Farina, the Vatican archivist, wrote in the introduction that he knows popular books and movies love to imply there are deep dark secrets intentionally hidden from public view.

But, as Bishop Sergio Pagano, prefect of the archives, explained, the "secret" in the archives' title comes from the Latin "secretum," meaning "personal" or "private."

In fact, Pope Leo XIII ordered the archives opened to researchers in 1881, and currently 60 to 80 scholars work there each day, poring over the parchments, ledgers, letters and texts.

The new book lets readers see some of the things the academics have seen, including handwritten letters to Pope Pius IX from Abraham Lincoln and from Jefferson Davis.

Both letters were written in 1863 while the U.S. Civil War raged on.

President Lincoln's letter is a formal, diplomatic request that Pope Pius accept Rufus King as the U.S. representative to the Vatican.

The letter makes no mention of the war, but assures the pope that King is "well informed of the relative interests" of both the United States and the Vatican "and of our sincere desire to cultivate and strengthen the friendship and good correspondence between us."

On the other hand, the letter from Jefferson Davis, president of the secessionist Confederate States, is filled with references to the war and its "slaughter, ruin and devastation."

Only the first page of the letter and Davis' signature are included in the book, but the Vatican historian's commentary about the letter includes quotations from the second page as well.

The commentator said Davis wrote to Pope Pius after the pope had written to the archbishops of New York and New Orleans "urging them to employ every possible means to end the bloodshed and restore peace."

Davis wrote to the pope about the suffering caused by "the war now waged by the government of the United States against the states and people over which I have been chosen to preside." He assured the pope that the people of the South are fighting only to defend themselves and to ensure they can "live at peace with all mankind under our own laws and institutions."

The book's historical commentary said the letter was, in fact, a veiled ploy to convince Pope Pius to recognize the independence of the Confederacy and establish diplomatic relations; the pope did not do so.

The book also includes a photograph of a letter to Pope Leo written on birch bark. The 1887 letter from the Ojibwe people of Grassy Lake, Ontario, thanks the pope -- "the Great Master of Prayer, he who holds the place of Jesus" -- for having given them a good "custodian of prayer," the local bishop.

The birch-bark letter and the most fragile ancient documents in the archives have been digitally scanned, and scholars consult them on one of the computers in the archives' Index Room.

But most of their requests result in the actual document being retrieved from storage in an underground bunker, a loft or one of the many rooms lined with 16th- and 17th-century wooden cupboards.

In a silence broken only by an occasional page turning and a constant click-click of keys on laptop computers, the scholars examine and write about the documents.

Alfredo Tuzi, director of the reading room, said the most popular topics of current research are the 1936-39 Spanish Civil War and the rise of Nazism in Germany and Fascism in Italy, roughly during the same years.

The archival material those scholars are working with has been available to the researchers only since 2006 when Pope Benedict XVI authorized the opening of all materials related to the papacy of Pope Pius XI, who died in February 1939.

Tuzi said that like any government, the Vatican has a set policy for the gradual opening of documents to public research. While some countries stipulate a number of years -- often 50 years after the documents were written -- the Vatican Secret Archives open records one entire pontificate at a time. Pope John Paul II and Pope Benedict XVI have asked the archives' staff to speed up the organization and cataloguing of the records from the pontificate of Pope Pius XII -- who reigned during and after World War II -- so that scholars can access them soon.

Archival material created after February 1939 is kept behind a strong wire fence in the archives' two-storey underground bunker, inaugurated by Pope John Paul II in 1983.

Made of reinforced concrete, the bunker resembles an underground parking garage featuring rows of metal shelves instead of cars. The yellow lines painted on the floors do not indicate parking spaces, but are glow-in-the-dark arrows pointing to emergency exits.

題名がまさに"The Vatican Secret Archives"(バチカン文書館)だって!


この記事の中では、英語でいう”secret”が「隠された秘密」とか思われているけど、それはラテン語の"secretum"から来ていて、その意味は"personal" or "private"だって言ってますね。









だてに大型本なわけではないですね。お値段はしっかり一万円越えてます。高い・・・。サンタさん、どうか良い子に下さいな♪ PSPの方が欲しいけど。
Vatican Secret Archives(amazonリンク)

「ユダヤ・キリスト教 封印のバチカン文書」林 陽 徳間書店
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レンブラントらの作品、英オークションで高額落札 記録更新も

headofmuse.jpg rembrandt091209.jpg

レンブラントらの作品、英オークションで高額落札 記録更新も

 レンブラントの作品「Portrait of a Man, Half-length, with His Arms Akimbo」は、これまで個人が所有しており40年ぶりに公開された。



 これまでのレンブラント作品の最高額は、2000年12月にロンドンのクリスティーズで落札された「Portrait of a lady aged 62」で、その額は1980万ポンド(約28億円)だった。

 ラファエロのデッサン「Head of a Muse」には、競売で落札された紙の絵画としては史上最高額の2920万ポンド(約42億円)の値が付いた。予想落札額の約2倍でもあった。

 一般公開されたのは50年ぶり、一般のオークションに出品されたのは150年ぶりというこの作品は1508年に描かれたもので、ラファエロの有名なフレスコ画「パルナッソス(Parnassus)」の下書きとなったものだ。ラファエロは「パルナッソス」を含め、ローマ教皇ユリウス2世(Pope Julius II)に招かれ、バチカン宮殿の署名の間(Stanza della Segnatura)に4つの作品を残している。

 紙に描かれた作品としてこれまで最高額を付けていたのは、2008年11月に米ニューヨーク(New York)で落札されたエドガー・ドガ(Edgar Degas)のパステル画で、落札額は3700万ドル(約33億円)だった。

 この日はそのほかに、ドメニキーノ(Domenichino)の絵画「Saint John the Evangelist」も出品され、同画家の作品としては歴代最高額の920万ポンド(約13億円)で落札された。

実は、BBCの記事で先月末ぐらいからかな? ラファエロの作品が12月にオークションにかけられ、価格の最高記録を塗り替えるのでは?と騒がれていたのでずっと気になっていました。



Artworks by Rembrandt and Raphael sell for £50m
A record-breaking auction in London saw two works of art, a Rembrandt and a Raphael, sell for almost £50m.

The drawing by Raphael, Head of a Muse, sold for £29.2m, a world record price for any work on paper to go under the hammer, Christie's said.

It was also a world record price for the artist.

The Rembrandt painting, entitled Portrait of a Man, Half-Length, With His Arms Akimbo, fetched £20.2m, a record price for the artist at auction.

Christie's Old Masters and 19th-century art sale on Tuesday night fetched a total of £68,380,250 from 28 lots sold.

The auction house said it was the highest total for an auction of Old Masters.

'Glimpse into genius'

Raphael's Head of a Muse was drawn as a study for a figure in Parnassus, one of the series of four frescoes in the Stanza della Segnatura in the Vatican which was commissioned by Pope Julius II and which was executed between 1508 and 1511.

The drawing, which was offered at public auction for the first time in more than 150 years, had been expected to sell for £12m to £16m.

It was bought by an anonymous client on the telephone.

The previous record price for a work on paper was Danseuse au repos, a pastel by Edgar Degas, which sold in New York in November last year for US dollars 37,042,500.

Benjamin Peronnet, from Christie's, said: "Raphael is universally recognised as one of the greatest artists in history, and we are extremely excited to have sold a beautiful drawing by his hand which played a major part in the execution of one of the masterpieces of European art.

"This truly exceptional drawing offers us a glimpse into the working mind of a genius.

"The drawing is not only a work of genius in its own right but is also related to one of the artist's great frescoes in the Vatican and has come down to us in remarkable condition."

Rembrandt's painting went under the hammer for the first time since 1930, when it sold for £18,500 - a noteworthy sum at the time.

Before the pre-sale exhibition the late portrait had not been publicly displayed for 40 years.

It was also bought by an anonymous client bidding by telephone.

The previous world record price for a work by Rembrandt sold at auction was £19.8m.

Portrait of a Lady Aged 62 was sold at Christie's in London in December 2000.

Portrait of a Man, Half-length, With His Arms Akimbo, was painted in 1658 during one of Rembrandt's most artistically inventive periods.

It depicts an unknown sitter facing the artist with a defiant pose and hands on hips.

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「心臓が止まるかと思ったよ」と語るのは、イタリアの首都ローマ(Roma)西部の港町、チビタベッキア(Civitavecchia)に住む元警官のタルチシオ・デ・パオリス(Tarcisio De Paolis)さん(64)。

 フレスコ画は、バチカン美術館(Vatican Museums)のヘリオドロスの間(Room of Heliodorus)に描かれたラファエロ作品の精巧な複製画だった。ラファエロと同じルネサンス期に活躍し、木彫で有名なウーゴ・ダ・スカルピ(Ugo da Scarpi)の弟子が描いたとみられている。

 ヘリオドロスの間は、現在一部が美術館になっているバチカン宮殿(Apostolic Palace)のなかで、ラファエロとその弟子たちがフレスコ画を描いた4つの小部屋の1室。当時ラファエロを招いたのは、ローマ教皇ユリウス2世(Pope Julius II)だった。一方、デ・パオリスさんの家は中世のころ、チビタベッキアの要塞の一部だったとみられる塔を拡張して作られている。

 ブリュッセル大学(University of Brussels)のラファエロ研究者、Nicole Dacos名誉教授(美術史)は、前代未聞の事例であるうえ、複製の完成度は傑出していると感嘆する。作成を依頼した人物は、「ローマとチビタベッキアを頻繁に行き来していた軍高官や地元の有力者」ではないかと想像する。チビタベッキアは当時、教皇の艦隊の母港だった。




 それから37年後、元ジャーナリストのアルバロ・ランツォーニ(Alvaro Ranzoni)さんの努力で、壁画は最近ようやくその価値にふさわしい注目を浴びた。




こちらは複製ですが、ついこないだもそういえば、壁から出てきてましたっけ? イタリア行ったら、あちこちの壁壊してみたくなります・・・(オイオイ(笑))。

何かがある?謎の空洞と文字 ルネサンスの絵
ラベル:ニュース 壁画
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「日本絵巻大成7」小松 茂美 中央公論社
「屍体狩り」小池 寿子 白水社
「図説 地獄絵を読む」澁澤龍彦、宮次男 河出書房
ラベル:新聞 アート
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bible codex.jpg

Fragment from world's oldest Bible found hidden in Egyptian monastery
Academic stumbles upon previously unseen section of Codex Sinaiticus dating back to 4th century

A British-based academic has uncovered a fragment of the world's oldest Bible hiding underneath the binding of an 18th-century book.

Nikolas Sarris spotted a previously unseen section of the Codex Sinaiticus, which dates from about AD350, as he was trawling through photographs of manuscripts in the library of St Catherine's Monastery in Egypt.

The Codex, handwritten in Greek on animal skin, is the earliest known version of the Bible. Leaves from the priceless tome are divided between four institutions, including St Catherine's Monastery and the British Library, which has held the largest section of the ancient Bible since the Soviet Union sold its collection to Britain in 1933.
Academics from Britain, America, Egypt and Russia collaborated to put the entire Codex online this year but new fragments of the book are occasionally rediscovered.

Mr Sarris, 30, chanced upon the fragment as he inspected photographs of a series of book bindings that had been compiled by two monks at the monastery during the 18th century.

Over the centuries, antique parchment was often re-used by St Catherine's monks in book bindings because of its strength and the relative difficulty of finding fresh parchment in such a remote corner of the world.

A Greek student conservator who is studying for his PhD in Britain, Mr Sarris had been involved in the British Library's project to digitise the Codex and quickly recognised the distinct Greek lettering when he saw it poking through a section of the book binding. Speaking from the Greek island of Patmos yesterday, Mr Sarris said: "It was a really exciting moment. Although it is not my area of expertise, I had helped with the online project so the Codex had been heavily imprinted in my memory. I began checking the height of the letters and the columns and quickly realised we were looking at an unseen part of the Codex."

Mr Sarris later emailed Father Justin, the monastery's librarian, to suggest he take a closer look at the book binding. "Even if there is a one-in-a-million possibility that it could be a Sinaiticus fragment that has escaped our attention, I thought it would be best to say it rather than dismiss it."

Only a quarter of the fragment is visible through the book binding but after closer inspection, Father Justin was able to confirm that a previously unseen section of the Codex had indeed been found. The fragment is believed to be the beginning of Joshua, Chapter 1, Verse 10, in which Joshua admonishes the children of Israel as they enter the promised land.

Speaking to The Art Newspaper, Father Justin said the monastery would use scanners to look more closely at how much of the fragment existed under the newer book binding. "Modern technology should allow us to examine the binding in a non-invasive manner," he said.

Mr Sarris said his find was particularly significant because there were at least 18 other book bindings in the monastery's library that were compiled by the same two monks that had re-used the Codex. "We don't know whether we will find more of the Codex in those books but it would definitely be worth looking," he said.

The library in St Catherine's does not have the laboratory conditions needed to carefully peel away the binding without damaging the parchment underneath but the library is undergoing renovations that might lead to the construction of a lab with the correct equipment to do so.
The Bible: A brief history

Although earlier fragments of the Bible have survived the passage of time, the Codex Sinaiticus is so significant because it is by far the most complete. The full text that has been discovered so far contains virtually all of the New Testament and about half of the Old Testament.

But whenever an ancient version of the holy book is found, it often raises questions about the evolution of the Bible and how close what we read today is to the original words of Christ and his early followers.

The Old Testament was written largely in Hebrew (with the odd Aramaic exception) but it is by no means a homogenous entity. Protestant and more recent Catholic versions of the Bible tend to use the Masoretic Text, a variation of the Hebrew Old Testament that was copied, edited and distributed by Jewish Masorete scholars between the 7th and 11th centuries. Earlier Catholic translations and the Greek and Russian Orthodox churches use the Septuagint, an ancient Greek version of the Hebrew text that was translated between the 3rd and 1st centuries BC.

In studying the early history of the New Testament, historians have about 5,650 handwritten copies in Greek on which they can draw, many of which are distinctly different. As Christianity consolidated its power through the first millennia, the four gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John came to form the key elements of the New Testament.

But other apocryphal writings were discarded along the way. The Shepherd of Hermas, for instance, is a Christian literary work of the 2nd century which appears in the Codex Sinaiticus and was considered part of the Bible by some early Christians but was later expunged. The most well-known apocryphal gospel is that of Thomas, a collection of 114 numbered sayings attributed to Jesus that was discovered in 1945. As it never refers to Jesus as "Christ", "Lord" or the "Son of Man" (and lacks any mention of the miracles attributed to Jesus in the other gospels) it is perhaps not surprising that it never made it into later versions of the Bible.





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【世界キリスト教情報 第973信より以下、転載】

まだまだ未知の写本があるってことですね! 今まで知られていないことが明らかになったら、凄いなあ~。



世界最古の聖書の断片がエジプトの修道院に隠されていたのが発見された 同じ内容で海外の記事
「解読! アルキメデス写本」ウィリアム・ノエル、リヴィエル・ネッツ 光文社
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日本経済新聞(2009年4月29日)経済教室 信頼揺らぐ日本版REITの再生 鑑定評価の全面開示を





しかも投資の評価の前提条件がこれほど酷いとは・・・! まあ、日本の不動産業界と証券業界が一緒になって作れば、こうなるか。







しかし、まさか鑑定評価書が全面公開されていないとは思いもよりませんでした。なんか論外じゃありませんか? 実はこの記事読んで改めて投資しようと思っていたのをやめて金融機関の株にスィッチしたんだけどね。



以前、日経新聞が社説だったかな? 抜本的な年金改革の提言してたけど、反響無かったなあ~。それが未だに不思議でならないのですが・・・。

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早くSQLと統計の復習やっとこうっと! 今、読んでるSQLの基本書は簡単でもう読み終わってしまうので、ドンドン進めねば。やる気が湧いてきました。

治験ナビ・フレーム ドラッグデザイン
ドラッグデザイン(Drug Design):


新薬開発研究者は、試験を繰り返す過程で、化合物から得られるさまざまな情報を読み取りながら、さらに必要な情報を得るためには、また、より新薬にふさわしくなるような性質を得るためには、 化学構造のどの部分をどう変えればいいのかを推理します。

治験ナビ・フレーム リード化合物





リード化合物の最適化リード化合物を化学的に修飾することで、より活性が高く、物性、薬物動態、毒性の面でも改善された、最適な開発候補化合物を見出すまでの創薬プロセス。 (製薬協による定義)
「週刊 金融財政事情 2008年7月7日号」
「週刊 金融財政事情 2008年7月7日号」補足メモ
「図解 データベースマーケティング」奥山真一郎 日本実業出版社
「データマイニングがマーケティングを変える!」SASインスティチュートジャパン PHP研究所
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【AFPBB Newsより以下転載】
ローマ法王ベネディクト16世(Pope Benedict XVI)は28日、バチカンのサンピエトロ大聖堂(Saint Peter's Basilica)で行ったミサで、聖パウロ(Saint Paul)のものとされる墓から古代の人骨の破片が発見されたことを明らかにした。







話は変わりますが、日本語に訳された記事って、どこもそうですけどボリュームが少なくて、面白い情報が省略されちゃってますね。いちいち翻訳するのが面倒なのだろうか? このご時勢なのに? それとも読者の関心度の低さ故か?






Pope says bone fragments found in St Paul's tomb
Pope Benedict announced on Sunday that fragments of bone from the first or second century had been found in a tomb in the Basilica of St Paul in Rome, which he said confirmed the belief that it housed the apostle's remains.

"This seems to confirm the unanimous and undisputed tradition that these are the mortal remains on the Apostle Paul," the pontiff said at St Paul's-Outside-the-Walls, on the eve of the Feasts of St Peter and St Paul celebrated on Monday.

Peter and Paul are revered by Christians as the greatest early missionaries. Converting on the road to Damascus following a blinding vision of Jesus, Paul took the Gospel to pagan Greeks and Romans and met his martyrdom in Rome in about AD 65.

Christian tradition had it that St Paul was buried together with St Peter in a catacomb on the Via Appia, before being moved to the basilica erected in his honor. For centuries it was believed that his remains were buried beneath the altar.

But it was not until a stone sarcophagus was discovered there in 2006 that Vatican archeologists could apply scientific research to the religious tradition.

The first results come during the "Pauline Year," when the Roman Catholic church has been celebrating the second millennium of the birth of the "Apostle of the Gentiles."

Pope Benedict gave details of the discovery, saying a tiny hole had been drilled in the sarcophaguus to permit inspection of the interior, revealing "traces of a precious linen cloth, purple in color, laminated with pure gold, and a blue colored textile with filaments of linen."

"It also revealed the presence of grains of red incense and traces of protein and limestone. There were also tiny fragments of bone, which, when subjected to Carbon 14 tests by experts, turned out to belong to someone who lived in the first or second century," said the pope.


The discovery of the bone fragments coincided with news that Vatican archaeologists had discovered what they believe is the oldest image in existence of St Paul, dating from the late 4th century, on the walls of catacomb beneath Rome.

Vatican newspaper Osservatore Romano, revealing the find on Sunday, published a picture of a frescoed image of the face of a man with a pointed black beard on a red background, inside a bright yellow halo. The high forehead is furrowed.

Experts of the Ponitifical Commission for Sacred Archaeology made the discovery on June 19 in the Catacomb of Santa Tecla in Rome and described it as the "oldest icon in history dedicated to the cult of the Apostle," according to the Vatican newspaper.

Early Christians in Rome buried their dead in catacombs dug into the soft rock under the city and decorated the underground walls with devotional images, often in the Pompeian style.
パウロの石棺、451年ぶりに公開 ローマ
「聖遺物の世界」青山 吉信 山川出版社
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結界?石室上で柱穴が複数出土 奈良・桜井茶臼山古墳

sakurain1.jpg sakurain2.jpg


結界?石室上で柱穴が複数出土 奈良・桜井茶臼山古墳












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A naked portrayal of the Mona Lisa, which was once attributed to Leonardo da Vinci, forms one of the highlights of the biggest exhibition ever held on the Renaissance genius.

The mysterious portrait of a semi-nude woman, looking straight at the viewer with an enigmatic smile and with her hands crossed, bears a remarkable resemblance to Leonardo's world famous painting.

Hidden for almost a century within the panelled walls of a library, the portrait appears to have been inspired by the Mona Lisa, which hangs in the Louvre Museum in Paris and was painted by the Italian master in the early 1500s.

It will form one of the centrepieces of a new exhibition at the Museo Ideale in the Tuscan town of Vinci, near Florence, where Leonardo was born in 1452.

"The frontal look, the position of the hands, the spatial conception of the landscape, with columns at the sides, show a clear link with the Mona Lisa's iconographic theme," Alessandro Vezzosi, director of the museum, told Discovery News.
The naked portrait once belonged to Napoleon's ambassador to the Vatican, Cardinal Joseph Fesch, and was rediscovered after being hidden inside the walls of his private library for nearly a century..

Art experts believe the portrait of the topless woman was probably not painted by da Vinci, but that the artist may have painted a similar picture, now lost, which then inspired one of his imitators to create this work.

"I think it is very likely that Leonardo da Vinci conceived a naked Mona Lisa," said Carlo Pedretti, a world authority on da Vinci.

The exhibition, which opened at the weekend and lasts until Sept 30, consists of more than 5,000 works spanning 500 years which were inspired by the Mona Lisa, including paintings, sculptures and new media images.

The exhibition will look at why the painting, known in Italy as La Gioconda, became such a famous icon.

It will explore the history of the painting, including the possible identity of the woman who posed for Leonardo, and the latest scientific research into the portrait.



フィレンツェ近郊にあるビンチのトスカナ町の美術館Museo Idealeで新しい展示の目玉の1つとなるでしょう。レオナルド・ダ・ヴィンチは1452年にそこで生まれている。









でも、何気に凄いなあ~というのは、自分の家の書斎の壁の中にこういう絵があったりするおうちって・・・どうよ? さぞかし名前の通った旧家で地元の名士である貴族様とかなんでしょうが・・・。





Nude, Mona Lisa-Like Painting Surfaces
Leonardo da Vinci, in a Renaissance version of Mad Magazine, may have painted his famous Mona Lisa in a number of ways, including nude. Now, a painting has surfaced that looks much like the original, sparking debate over just how far the master took his iconic painting.

The newly revealed painting, hidden for almost a century within the wood wall of a private library, shows a portrait of a half-naked woman with clear links to the famous (and clothed) Mona Lisa.

The work, which documents suggest was at least based on never-seen similar work by Da Vinci, is now on exhibit at the Museo Ideale in the Tuscan town of Vinci, where Da Vinci was born in 1452.

The lady in the portrait does not exactly resemble the original Mona Lisa, but there is little doubt it has parallels with the painting hanging at the Louvre museum in Paris.

"The frontal look, the position of the hands, the spatial conception of the landscape, with columns at the sides, show a clear link with the Mona Lisa's iconographic theme," Alessandro Vezzosi, director of the museum, told Discovery News.
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これは私も従来から、常々思っていたことで会議などで提示する資料は、数値だけの表で事足りるのではないか? つ~か、グラフや図はむしろ、作成者の思惑で恣意的に歪められた印象を与えられる恐れがあり、極力排除すべきではと思っていました。













「私の履歴書 第二十八集」(田中角栄)日本経済新聞社
「超」整理法 野口 悠紀雄 中央公論社
「超」勉強法 野口 悠紀雄 講談社
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Knights Templar hid the Shroud of Turin, says Vatican
Medieval knights hid and secretly venerated The Holy Shroud of Turin for more than 100 years after the Crusades, the Vatican said yesterday in an announcement that appeared to solve the mystery of the relic’s missing years.

The Knights Templar, an order which was suppressed and disbanded for alleged heresy, took care of the linen cloth, which bears the image of a man with a beard, long hair and the wounds of crucifixion, according to Vatican researchers.

The Shroud, which is kept in the royal chapel of Turin Cathedral, has long been revered as the shroud in which Jesus was buried, although the image only appeared clearly in 1898 when a photographer developed a negative.

Barbara Frale, a researcher in the Vatican Secret Archives, said the Shroud had disappeared in the sack of Constantinople in 1204 during the Fourth Crusade, and did not surface again until the middle of the fourteenth century. Writing in L'Osservatore Romano, the Vatican newspaper, Dr Frale said its fate in those years had always puzzled historians.

However her study of the trial of the Knights Templar had brought to light a document in which Arnaut Sabbatier, a young Frenchman who entered the order in 1287, testified that as part of his initiation he was taken to “a secret place to which only the brothers of the Temple had access”. There he was shown “a long linen cloth on which was impressed the figure of a man” and instructed to venerate the image by kissing its feet three times.

Dr Frale said that among other alleged offences such as sodomy, the Knights Templar had been accused of worshipping idols, in particular a “bearded figure”. In reality however the object they had secretly venerated was the Shroud.

They had rescued it to ensure that it did not fall into the hands of heretical groups such as the Cathars, who claimed that Christ did not have a true human body, only the appearance of a man, and could therefore not have died on the Cross and been resurrected. She said her discovery vindicated a theory first put forward by the British historian Ian Wilson in 1978.

The Knights Templar were founded at the time of the First Crusade in the eleventh century to protect Christians making the pilgrimage to Jerusalem. The Order was endorsed by the Pope, but when Acre fell in 1291 and the Crusaders lost their hold on the Holy Land their support faded, amid growing envy of their fortune in property and banking.

Rumours about the order’s corrupt and arcane secret ceremonies claimed that novices had to deny Christ three times, spit on the cross, strip naked and kiss their superior on the buttocks, navel, and lips and submit to sodomy. King Philip IV of France, who coveted the order’s wealth and owed it money, arrested its leaders and put pressure on Pope Clement V to dissolve it.

Several knights, including the Grand Master, Jacques de Molay, were burned at the stake. Legends of the Templars’ secret rituals and lost treasures have long fascinated conspiracy theorists, and figure in The Da Vinci Code, which repeated the theory that the knights were entrusted with the Holy Grail.

In 2003 Dr Frale, the Vatican’s medieval specialist, unearthed the record of the trial of the Templars, also known as the Chinon Parchment, after realising that it had been wrongly catalogued. The parchment showed that Pope Clement V had accepted the Templars were guilty of “grave sins”, such as corruption and sexual immorality, but not of heresy.

Their initiation ceremony involved spitting on the Cross, but this was to brace them for having to do so if captured by Muslim forces, Dr Frale said. Last year she published for the first time the prayer the Knights Templar composed when “unjustly imprisoned”, in which they appealed to the Virgin Mary to persuade "our enemies” to abandon calumnies and lies and revert to truth and charity.

Radiocarbon dating tests on the Turin Shroud in 1988 indicated that it was a medieval fake. However this had been challenged on the grounds that the dated sample was taken from an area of the shroud mended after a fire in the Middle Ages and not a part of the original cloth.

After the sack of Constantinople it was next seen at Lirey in France in 1353, when it was displayed in a local church by descendants of Geoffroy de Charney, a Templar Knight burned at the stake with Jacques de Molay.

It was moved to various European cities until it was acquired by the Savoy dynasty in Turin in the sixteenth century. Holy See property since 1983, the Shroud was last publicly exhibited in 2000, and is due to go on show again next year.

The Vatican has not declared whether it is genuine or a forgery, leaving it to believers to decide. The late John Paul II said it was “an icon of the suffering of the innocent in every age.” The self proclaimed heirs of the Knights Templar have asked the Vatican to “restore the reputation” of the disgraced order and acknowledge that assets worth some £80 million were confiscated.

The Association of the Sovereign Order of the Temple of Christ, based in Spain, said that when the order was dissolved by Pope Clement V in 1307, more than 9,000 properties, farms and commercial ventures belonging to knights were seized by the Church. A British branch also claiming descent from the Knights Templar and based in Hertfordshire has called for a papal apology for the persecution of the order.



まさに『事実は小説より奇なり』とはこれのことですね。こないだ十字軍の裁判記録が数百年ぶりに見つかったと思ったら、今度はこれですか! うわ~あ、歴史面白くて堪んないかも(ワクワク)♪


「トリノの聖骸布―最後の奇蹟」イアン・ウィルソン 文芸春秋
トリノ聖骸布、2010年に公開 ローマ法王発表
トリノの聖布 その秘密はまだベールの中
「フランスの中世社会」渡辺節夫 吉川弘文館
「聖骸布血盟」フリア・ナバロ ランダムハウス講談社
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この衝撃的な史実と、現在の音楽シーンで流行っているカウンターテナー・ブームが相まって、人類最後のカストラートと言われるアレッサンドロ・モレスキの貴重な音源(1902年収録)や、人気沸騰中の旬のカウンターテナー、フィリップ・ジャルスキーやデイヴィッド・ダニエルズらを収録したコンピレーション・アルバム『ALTUS 奇跡の声-美しきカウンターテナーの世界』が、店頭では一時品薄状態になるなど、クラシック界では異例のヒット商品となっている。

この大反響を受けて、急遽3月25日よりアレッサンドロ・モレスキの「小荘厳ミサ曲より 十字に架けられ」の着うた(R)配信が決定した。






リリースとなったアルバム『ALTUS 奇跡の声-美しきカウンターテナーの世界』には、1922年に亡くなった“最後のカストラート”といわれるアレッサンドロ・モレスキが、1902年にバチカンのシスティーナ礼拝堂で録音した非常に貴重な音源が収録され、話題となっている。同時に人気沸騰中の旬のカウンターテナー、フィリップ・ジャルスキーやデイヴィッド・ダニエルズらも収録され、非常に豪華なコンピレーションと言うべき内容となっている。




ALTUS 奇跡の声(amazonリンク)

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ヘロデ王 波瀾万丈の生涯



特集:ヘロデ王 波瀾万丈の生涯


 それでもハスモン家の脅威はおさまらなかった。2年後の仮庵(かり いお)の祭りのとき、第二神殿の大祭司を務めるマリアンメの弟が、ユダヤの民から大歓迎を受けた。この若者が王座を脅かすのではないかと恐れたヘロデは、エリコの宮殿にあるプールで彼を溺死させる。

 紀元前4年、ヘロデはエリコで病に倒れて息を引きとる。その葬列からは、臣民が王を尊敬し、畏怖していたことがうかがえたと、ヨセフスは伝記で書いている。王の遺体は、宝石をちりばめて紫色の布を敷いた黄金の棺台(かん だい)に横たえられた。右手には笏(しゃく)を持ち、頭には金の王冠がかぶせられていた。




知りませんでした~! こんなにも詳しく知られていたんですねヘロデ王の事績って。

しかも、実にしたたかで優秀な豪腕政治家だったようです。同時に、類い稀な実行力をも兼ね備えていたみたいです。ふむふむ。スケールでかいね! 都庁のようなハリボテを作って喜んでいる方々とは器が違うようです。





ラベル:歴史 雑誌 考古学
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【Christian Todayより、以下転載】













ヘロデ王 波瀾万丈の生涯
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【nikkei netより、以下転載】
One Laptop Per Child(OLPC)やIntelの「Classmate PC」の影さえ薄れさせる、新たな低価格ノートPCがやって来た。中国メーカーのHiVisionは、わずか98ドルという低価格で、LinuxベースのノートPCを発売する予定だ。この価格ならば、Netbookの購入者でさえ、お金を浪費しているかのような錯覚に陥ってしまう。
 しかしながら、この話には難点がある。このPCに搭載されている400MHzのプロセッサは、Windowsや他のx86プログラムを稼動させるのは厳しそうである。それでも、Linux OSが快適に感じられるユーザーならば、HiVisionのPCは、ほとんどの生産性ニーズを満たすのに、十分な性能を備えている。

一万円ちょっとぐらいなら、今日買ってもいいくらいですよ~。日本でも売らないかな? スパイウェアが忍び込ませてあったり、バッテリーが火を噴いたりしなければ、問題無しなんですけど・・・ちょっと欲しい!!
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【AFPBB Newsより以下転載】
イスラエル考古学庁(Israel Antiquities Authority、IAA)は27日、「死海文書(Dead Sea Scrolls)」の数千枚にのぼる断片全部をデジタル画像化し、それをインターネット上で一般公開するという計画を発表した。   

「死海文書」は、現存する最古の旧約聖書写本とされるヘブライ語聖書の断片を含む、約900巻の写本の集まり。ユダヤ教とキリスト教の誕生を解明するもので、史上最も貴重な考古学的発見のひとつと考えられている。1947年に死海(Dead Sea)付近の洞窟で、ベドウィンの羊飼いが最初の断片を発見した。


ようやく公開って感じでしょうか? あれだけいろいろと騒がれて、種々の騒動をひき起こしたこの文書ですが、なにはともあれ、喜ばしいことに変わりはありません。



「死海文書の謎」マイケル・ペイジェント、リチャード・リー著 柏書房 感想1
「クムラン」エリエット・アベカシス著 角川文庫
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Was 16th-century Scots alchemist the first man to fly?
He was judged by history as a crank, but an alchemist who jumped off the ramparts of a Scottish castle 500 years ago wearing wings made of hen feathers may have been the first man to fly.

Not only was John Damian a success, experts now say, but he may also have invented the world's first hang glider.

Damian's leap of faith in 1507 is the earliest recorded flight experiment in Scotland. It is believed that the alchemist and inventor was inspired by Leonardo da Vinci, who carried out his own experiments on the Continent a few years earlier.

Dressed in a winged contraption made of hen feathers Damian planned to soar through the skies from Stirling Castle to France. His mission, funded by King James IV, was intended to demonstrate the glory of Scotland's Renaissance, but it ended in ignominy when Damian landed in the nearby castle dungheap, breaking his leg.

The alchemist blamed the disaster on his wings. He said that the hen feathers from which they were made were attracted to sewage because hens were birds that “covet the middens and not the skies”. The story has been the source of much mirth over the centuries. Damian's most famous critic, the court poet William Dunbar, wrote a long satirical verse, claiming that every bird of the air had attacked him in protest. Yet the 16th-century Bird Man of Stirling Castle, as he has come to be known, could have the last laugh.

Charles McKean, professor of Scottish architectural history at the University of Dundee, has found evidence that, despite falling far short of its intended destination, the attempt was a success after all. Professor McKean has analysed contemporary maps and believes that Damian may have flown up to half a mile. “To obtain the best uplift for his long journey, Damian flew off the west side of the ramparts' highest point,” he said. “To the repeated scorn of the poet William Dunbar, he landed in a midden and broke his thigh bone. He was ridiculed and the attempt dismissed.

“Anyone looking over the west parapet of Stirling Castle would realise that someone tumbling down the rock at that point would end up very dead.

“Moreover, the royal gardens lay at its foot. Although the exact processional route between castle and gardens remains unclear, this was no place for a midden.

“A 1702 plan of the town, on the other hand, indicates the nearest midden half a mile away, beyond the current Smith Art Gallery. If that was the one in which Damian landed, there is but one conclusion - the wings worked.”

Professor McKean added: “He didn't reach France, of course, but I believe his flight should be regarded as an historic success. Either the wings worked as they were intended to or Damian invented the world's first glider. No one at that time, including da Vinci, had achieved better results.”

Professor McKean, who will give a public lecture on the historic experiment in Stirling next month, said that the achievement was ridiculed by Dunbar because he was jealous of Damian's favoured position with the King and the massive funding that he received.

A negative version of events was later used by Protest historians to portray Scotland's Renaissance as inferior to the movement that took place in the rest of Europe, he said.

The revised version of events has now been included in guided tours of the Stirling Smith Gallery in Stirling, which is currently hosting an exhibition of drawings by da Vinci.

Craig Mair, a local historian, said: “John Damian has been branded a failure for 500 years but it always seemed incredible, if the wings did not work, that he survived a drop of more than 75 metres with only a broken thigh bone.

“This new explanation seems entirely plausible. He may, in fact, have been the first man to fly.”

Damian won the support of King James IV after he claimed to be able to create gold from base metals. The King granted him the post of Abbot of Tongland, in Galloway.

Even though his schemes failed, the King was clearly still impressed by Damian and gave him a pension of 200 ducats when he retired in 1509. Damian continued to work at the royal court until 1513.



世界初の飛行機開発は、ライト兄弟じゃなくなるのでしょうか? イカロスの翼じゃありませんが、今後も気になるちょっと楽しいお話でした(笑顔)。
ラベル:ニュース 歴史
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グーグル、「Google News Archive」に新機能--過去の新聞記事を検索閲覧可能に

グーグル、「Google News Archive」に新機能--過去の新聞記事を検索閲覧可能に
【CNET JAPANより以下、転載】


 同社プロダクトマネージャーのPunit Soni氏は、今回のプロジェクトについて公式ブログ上で、「これまでに書かれたあらゆる記事を含む新聞紙面は、おそらく全世界で何十億ページにも上ると考えられる。このすべてを、つまりは最も小さな地方の週刊紙から、最も大きな全国版の日刊紙に至るまで、読者が自由に探して閲覧できるようにすることが、われわれの目標である。問題となっているのは、こうした新聞の大半が、オンラインでは入手不能であるという点にある。われわれは、この現状を打開したいと願っている」と述べた。

 今回のプロジェクトは、筆者のように、紙媒体からオンラインの報道に転身した記者にとって、特別に興味を抱かせる。筆者が、ほんの10年ほど前に、CNET News.comに入社した時には、当初オンラインメディアは紙媒体より短命に終わるのではないかと、筆者は心配したものだ。


 Soni氏は、Googleのプロジェクトが、まずは「Google News Archive」のサイト上で提供されることを明らかにした。「時間とともに、より多くの記事がスキャンされ、インデックスも増大するにつれて、Googleのメイン検索エンジンでの検索結果に、その内容が表示されるようになり、Google.comで検索を行う時には、こうした新聞記事の全文検索も可能になるだろう」と、Soni氏は語っている。

 Googleは、ProQuestおよびHeritage Microfilmの2団体と、Quebec Chronicle-Telegraphを除いては、どの新聞社が今回のプロジェクトに参加しているのか、正式には明らかにしていない。とはいえ、提供サービスの一例として示されたページには、フロリダ州セントピーターズバーグのThe Evening IndependentやSt. Petersburg Times、ノースカロライナ州のThe Tryon News、ペンシルバニア州のPittsburgh Post-Gazetteからの記事が掲載されている。

 すでにGoogleは、先にThe New York TimesおよびThe Washington Postのデジタル記事化に関して提携しており、今回のプロジェクトは、それをさらに拡大したものになるとも明らかにされている。

 Googleは、コンテンツの著作権をめぐって、以前は通信社と争う立場にあった。だが、2006年にはAssociated Press(AP)と、2007年にはAgence France-Presse(AFP)と、ライセンス契約を結んで合意に至っている。



ラベル:ニュース google
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1600年以上前の聖書写本、ネット公開 英独など共同



こういうのはなんか嬉しいんですよねぇ~。勿論、読めませんけど。英語の翻訳があるということですが、「No translation available.」と表示されちゃいましたけど・・・アレレ?


ラベル:ニュース 聖書
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海外の本を読むなんて、昔は入手すること自体が大きな障壁でしたが、今はamazonもあるし、直接海外の書店から購入するのも容易だし、google booksearch やgoogle scholar など便利なものもある。




Google Book Search、「デジタル化まだ」の本も検索可能に
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【INTERNET Watchより、以下転載】




 これについて、LibraryThing創業者であるTim Spalding氏は公式ブログでこの件についてコメント。Spalding氏はこの買収に関しては事前に何も知らされておらず、買収後も Spalding氏が過半数の株式を持っているため、影響はないとしている。また、AmazonがLibraryThingのデータにアクセスすることもないと保証した。いずれにせよ、この買収の結果、AmazonはLibraryThingの少数株主ともなった。

これって、marketplaceとか売るんでしょうかね? 選択肢が広がるので洋書を買う時に好ましいことこのうえないが、amazonの勢力が益々拡大するんですね・・・。


今、「TOYOTA WAY」というトヨタ式生産方式を含めたビジネス書を読んでいるのだけれど、これが面白くって・・・。通勤や会社の昼休みにも延々と読んでる。

それでブログの更新の暇もないのだが、借りてる本だし、アメリカのアマゾンで買っちゃおうかな? 日本の方で売ってるかな? ベストセラーだから、たぶん1ドルぐらいでありそうだけど・・・。さてさて?
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Text reveals more ancient secrets
Experts are "lost for words" to have found that a medieval prayer book has yielded yet another key ancient text buried within its parchment.

Works by mathematician Archimedes and the politician Hyperides had already been found buried within the book, known as the Archimedes Palimpsest.

But now advanced imaging technology has revealed a third text - a commentary on the philosopher Aristotle.

Project director William Noel called it a "sensational find".

The prayer book was written in the 13th Century by a scribe called John Myronas.

But instead of using fresh parchment for his work, he employed pages from five existing books.

Dr Noel, curator of manuscripts at the US-based Walters Art Museum and a co-author of a forthcoming book on the Archimedes Palimpsest, said: "It's a rather brutal process, but it means you can reuse parchment if you are short of it.

"You take books off shelves, you scrub off the text, you cut them up and you make a new book."

In 1906 it came to light that one of the books recycled to form the medieval manuscript contained a unique work by Archimedes.

And in 2002, modern imaging technology not only provided a clearer view of this famous mathematician's words, but it also revealed another text - the only known manuscript of Hyperides, an Athenian politician from the 4th Century BC.

"At this point you start thinking striking one palimpsest is gold, and striking two is utterly astonishing. But then something even more extraordinary happened," Dr Noel told the BBC News website.

One of the recycled books was proving extremely difficult to read, explained Roger Easton, a professor of imaging science at Rochester Institute of Technology, US.

"We were using a technique called multispectral imaging," he said.

This digital imaging technique uses photographs taken at different wavelengths to enhance particular characteristics of the imaged area.

Subtle adjustments of this method, explained Professor Easton, suddenly enabled these hidden words to be revealed.

"Even though I couldn't read Ancient Greek, just the fact that I could see the words gave me shivers," he said.

Foundations of logic

An international team of experts began to scrutinize the ancient words, explained Reviel Netz, professor of ancient science at Stanford University, US, and another co-author of the palimpsest book.

A series of clues, such as spotting a key name in the margin, led the team to its conclusion.

"The philosophical passage in the Archimedes Palimpsest is now definitely identified as a relatively early commentary to Aristotle's Categories," said Professor Netz.

He said that Aristotle's Categories had served as the foundation for the study of logic throughout western history.

Further study has revealed the most likely author of this unique commentary is Alexander of Aphrodisias, Professor Robert Sharples from University College London, UK, told BBC News.

If this is the case, he said, "it gives us part of a commentary previously supposed lost by the most important of those ancient commentators on Aristotle".

A provisional translation of the commentary is currently being undertaken.

It reveals a debate on some aspects of Aristotle's theory of classification, such as: if the term "footed" is used for animals, can it be used to classify anything else, such as a bed?

The passage reads:

For as "foot" is ambiguous when applied to an animal and to a bed, so are "with feet" and "without feet". So by "in species" here [Aristotle] is saying "in formula".

For if it ever happens that the same name indicates the differentiae of genera that are different and not subordinate one to the other, they are at any rate not the same in formula.

Dr Noel said: "There is no more important philosopher in the world than Aristotle. To have early views in the 2nd and 3rd Century AD of Aristotle's Categories is just fantastic.

"We have one book that contains three texts from the ancient world that are absolutely central to our understanding of mathematics, politics and now philosophy," he said.

He added: "I am at a loss for words at what this book has turned out to be. To make these discoveries in the 21st Century is frankly nutty - it is just so exciting."


「解読! アルキメデス写本」ウィリアム・ノエル、リヴィエル・ネッツ 光文社
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X-rays reveal Archimedes' secrets
A series of hidden texts written by the ancient Greek mathematician Archimedes are being revealed by US scientists.

Until now, the pages have remained obscured by paintings and texts laid down on top of the original writings.

Using a non-destructive technique known as X-ray fluorescence, the researchers are able to peer through these later additions to read the underlying text.

The goatskin parchment records key details of Archimedes' work, considered the foundation of modern mathematics.

The writings include the only Greek version of On Floating Bodies known to exist, and the only surviving ancient copies of The Method of Mechanical Theorems and the Stomachion.

In the treatises, the 3rd Century BC mathematician develops numerical descriptions of the real world.

"Archimedes was like no-one before him," says Will Noel, curator of manuscripts and rare books at the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore, Maryland and director of the imaging project.

"It just doesn't get any better than re-reading the mind of one of the greatest figures of Western civilisation."

'Eighth wonder'

Revealing Archimedes' writings presents a huge challenge to the imaging team.

The original texts were transcribed in the 10th Century by an anonymous scribe on to parchment.

Imaging a page for sulphur content, using helium (Credit: SLAC, Diana Rogers)

Three centuries later a monk in Jerusalem called Johannes Myronas recycled the manuscript to create a palimpsest.

Palimpsesting involves scraping away the original text so the parchments can be used again. To create a book, the monk cut the pages in half and turned them sideways.

To create a book Myronas also used recycled pages from works by the 4th Century Orator Hyperides and other philosophical texts.

Mr Noel describes the palimpsest as "the eighth wonder of the world".

"You never get three unique palimpsested texts from the ancient world together in one book," he told the BBC News website. "That's just completely unheard of."

The monks filled the recycled pages with Greek Orthodox prayers.

It's like receiving a fax from the 3rd Century BC
Will Noel

Later, forgers in the 20th Century added gold paintings of religious imagery to try to boost the value of the tome.

The result was the near total obliteration of the original texts apart from faint traces of the ink used by the 10th Century Scribe.

Bright light

Previously the privately-owned palimpsest has been investigated using various optical and digital imaging techniques.

However, much of the text remained hidden behind paint and stains.

The researchers have now turned to a technique known as X-ray fluorescence to tease out the final details of the writings.

Pages from the Archimedes Palimpsest
The palimpsest contains pages from several bodies of work

The method is used in many branches of science including geology and biology. It has previously been used by other researchers to decode ancient texts.

In August 2005 a team from Cornell University successfully deciphered a series of 2,000-year-old worn down stone inscriptions.

The X-rays are formed in a synchrotron - a particle accelerator that uses electrons travelling at close to the speed of light to generate powerful "synchrotron" light.

The light covers a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum, including powerful X-rays, a million times more intense than a transmission X-ray used in medical imaging.

"In fluorescence it's like looking at the stars at night whereas in transmission it's like looking during the day," explains Dr Uwe Bergmann of the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab in the US, where the work is being done.

The light enables scientists to look inside matter at the molecular and atomic scale.

Glowing words

The technique is particularly useful for probing the palimpsest because the ink used by the scribe to record Archimedes' work contains iron.

"When the X-rays hit an iron atom it emits a characteristic radiation, it glows," says Dr Bergmann. "When you record the glow you can reconstruct an image of all of the iron in the book."

The glowing words are displayed on a computer screen, giving the researchers the first glimpse of the text in nearly 800 years.

"It's like receiving a fax from the 3rd Century BC," said Mr Noel. "It's the most sensational feeling."

Each page takes 12 hours to reconstruct as the highly focused beam of X-rays, the width of a human hair, sweeps across the page.

The team have until the 7 August this year to scrutinise the palimpsest, before the synchrotron is switched off for maintenance.

During that time they hope to scan between 12 and 14 pages, paying particular attention to the areas covered with the forged paintings.

The public can watch the researchers as they reveal the glowing ancient text during a live webcast at 2300 GMT on 4 August.
Equilibrium of Planes
Spiral Lines
The Measurement of the Circle
Sphere and Cylinder
On Floating Bodies
The Method of Mechanical Theorems
本では、羊皮紙と訳されていたけど、goatskin parchment ということは、山羊皮みたいですね。勿論、それも羊皮紙にふくまれるけど。

ほほ~、このプリンパセストを世界で8番目の不思議とおっしゃられてるんですね! そういやあ~本の中にもそういった表現があったような・・・? "世界7不思議"ではなくて、"世界8不思議"ネ。それを日本では報道してないだあ~、別な意味で凄い(笑)。




「解読! アルキメデス写本」ウィリアム・ノエル、リヴィエル・ネッツ 光文社
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米Microsoftが7月8日の月例セキュリティ更新プログラムで配布したWindows DNSのパッチ(MS08-037)を適用後、ZoneAlarmのセキュリティ製品に不具合が起きていることが分かった。

 Microsoftによると、影響が出ているのはCheck Point Software傘下のZoneAlarmとCheck Point Endpoint Security(旧Check Point Integrity)の製品。MS08-037を適用後、ネットワークに接続できなくなる問題が生じているという。MicrosoftはMS08-037の情報を更新し、現在対処に当たっている。

 ZoneAlarmのWebサイトに掲載された情報によれば、影響を受けるのはZoneAlarm Free、ZoneAlarm Pro、ZoneAlarm AntiVirus、ZoneAlarm Anti-Spyware、ZoneAlarm Security Suiteの各製品。設定変更などで対処する方法を紹介している。不具合を解消する最新バージョンは、英語版のみの公開となっている。
windows updateしたら、ネットにつながらなくなった
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Secret Vatican archive now at Sydney
The University of Sydney has purchased Australia's only copy of the recently released manuscripts of the trials of the Knights Templar - a $10,000 reproduction of a document that rehabilitates the medieval Christian military order.

The Knights, recognisable by the white robes with a red cross they wore over their chain mail, guarded pilgrims visiting the Holy Lands. In the early 14th-century King Philip IV of France accused the knights of heresy and sodomy, and many of the order's leaders were burnt at the stake.

"The crux of these trial documents is that Pope Clement V didn't think the Templars were guilty of heresy," says Neil Boness, Rare Book librarian at the University's Fisher Library. It is "very unusual" for the Vatican to release a reproduction of material from the Secret Archives such as this, known as the Processus Contra Templarios - Papal Inquiry into the Trial of the Templars, he added.

According to John Pryor, Associate Professor for Medieval Studies at Sydney, there was "significant pressure" exerted on the Pope by the King's agents to find the order guilty.

"Several thousand of the order survived in Spain and elsewhere, but mainly they disappeared into society," says Pryor. He hopes the documents will assist potential PhD students: "There is a huge scholarly interest in the trials."

The order was popularised by Dan Brown's book The Da Vinci Code, and has been the subject of all sorts of myths and legends over the years. The Knights have been linked to the modern-day Freemasons, and portrayed as guardians of the Holy Grail.

The key document in the reproduction is known as the Chinon Parchment and it shows that the Pope absolved the Knights of heresy charges. It was "misplaced" in the Vatican archives until it was discovered by a researcher in 2001.

The elaborate reproduction is bound in an ornate leather case, and includes scholarly notes and reproductions of the original parchments - mould stains and all - as well as the wax seals used by their inquisitors. Only 799 copies were made: Pope Benedict was given the first copy, and the University owns copy number 300.

"We had to apply to the publishers to buy a copy," Boness says. As the home of Australia's "largest group of experts in medieval studies," it is appropriate that Australia's only copy of the trial is housed at the University of Sydney, Pryor notes.




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トリノ聖骸布、2010年に公開 ローマ法王発表

トリノ聖骸布、2010年に公開 ローマ法王発表
バチカン市国(AP) ローマ法王ベネディクト16世は2日、イエス・キリストの埋葬時に遺体を包んでいたとされる「トリノ聖骸布」を、2010年に一般公開すると発表した。


おおっと! これは是非、行って見に行くべきですね。パスポートの期限が切れていたので慌てて先日、10年の奴を申請したばっかり。今度の日曜日に受け取りにいく予定ですが、あと二年後でしょう、見ておきたいですよねぇ~。




Turin Shroud to go on public display in 2010
Pope Benedict has announced that the Shroud of Turin -- revered by many Christians as Jesus Christ's burial cloth -- will go on rare public display in 2010.

The shroud last was shown to the public in 2000, when more than a million visitors viewed it in Turin cathedral during a special display for the new millennium Holy Year.

The Pope made the announcement today at a special audience at the Vatican for 7,000 pilgrims from Turin.

The shroud bears an imprint believed by some to be the image of Christ. Kept in Turin's Roman Catholic cathedral, the strip of linen is about four meters long and three meters wide.

Believers say the image on the cloth was left by Christ's body after he was taken off the cross.

A carbon-dating test in 1988 concluded that the shroud came from medieval times. The Vatican was given ownership of the shroud in 1983.
CNN本家の記事。内容はほとんど同じでした。ちぇっ! もっと詳しいかと思って探したのに損した。
ラベル:ニュース 聖骸布
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Stonehenge may have been ‘the domain of the dead’ for royals
STONEHENGE may have been a burial ground for an ancient royal family, British archaeologists said yesterday.

The original purpose of the stone monument in Wiltshire is one of archaeology's most enduring enigmas. Previous theories have suggested that it was an astronomical observatory or a religious centre.

But radiocarbon analysis of human remains excavated from the site have revealed that it was used as a cemetery from its inception just after 3000BC until well after the largest circle of stones went up in about 2500BC. Previously, archaeologists had believed people were buried at Stonehenge only between 2700 and 2600BC.

Mike Parker Pearson, an archaeologist at the University of Sheffield, who is leading an excavation of the site, said: "The hypothesis we are working on is that Stonehenge represents a place of the dead.

"A further twist is that the people buried at Stonehenge may have been the elite of their society, an ancient royal British dynasty, perhaps."

Last year the same researchers found evidence of a large settlement of houses nearby.

Professor Parker Pearson said that the latest findings reinforced his belief that the settlement and Stonehenge formed part of a larger ancient ceremonial complex along the river Avon.

"What we suspect is that the river is the conduit between the two realms of the living and the dead. It was the prehistoric version of the River Styx."

This is the first time that any of the cremation burials from Stonehenge have been radiocarbon-dated. The burials were excavated in the 1950s and have been kept at Salisbury Museum.

Another 49 cremation burials were dug up at Stonehenge during the 1920s, but all were put back in the ground because they were thought to be of no scientific value.

The new research provides clues about the original purpose of the monument and shows that its use as a cemetery extended for more than 500 years. The earliest cremation burial dated - a small pile of burnt bones and teeth - came from one of the pits around Stonehenge's edge known as the Aubrey Holes and dates to 3030-2880 BC, roughly the time when Stonehenge's ditch-and-bank monument was cut into Salisbury Plain.

The most recent cremation comes from the ditch's northern side and was of a 25-year-old woman; it dates to 2570-2340 BC, about the time that the first arrangements of sarsen stones appeared at Stonehenge. The team estimates that between 150 and 240 men, women and children were buried at Stonehenge over a 600-year period.

Andrew Chamberlain, a specialist in ancient demography at the University of Sheffield, said that the relatively small number of burials in Stonehenge's earliest phase, becoming larger over the following centuries, was in line with the idea that this might have been the final resting place of a single, growing family.

Professor Parker Pearson added that placement of the graves and artefacts, such as a small stone mace, were evidence that the site was reserved as a "domain of the dead" for the elite.

"I don't think it was the common people getting buried at Stonehenge, it was clearly a special place at the time," he said.

The findings are the result of the Stonehenge Riverside Project, a collaboration between five British universities, which is funded by the National Geographic Society and the Arts and Humanities Research Council, with support from English Heritage.

David Batchelor, an archaeologist with English Heritage who has long experience of Stonehenge, welcomed the findings. "What this has done is open up the field slightly by showing that this burial activity appeared over a larger period of time than at first thought, raising questions over who it was that was being buried there," he said.


いやあ~なかなか面白いですね。まだまだ通説には遠く、これからの話でしょうが 、いろんな謎が解明されていくのってワクワクしてきちゃいますね♪
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英字キーボードで5万円台--日本HP、「HP 2133 Mini-Note PC」を日本でも投入

英字キーボードで5万円台--日本HP、「HP 2133 Mini-Note PC」を日本でも投入
【CNET JAPANより以下、転載】
日本ヒューレット・パッカードは5月21日、ミニサイズ フルファンクションPC「HP 2133 Mini-Note PC」を発表した。今年4月に米国で発表され、ASUSTeK ComputerのEee PC対抗として話題になった製品だ。価格は、1.2GHzモデルが5万9850円、1.6GHzモデルが7万9800円。発売は6月上旬を予定している。

HP 2133 Mini-Note PC

 VIA C7-M ULVプロセッサ(1.6/1.2GHz)を搭載し、8.9インチ(1280×768)の大画面ディスプレイを採用した。Windows Vista Businessモデルは、Windows XPへのダウングレードも可能だ。当初、BTOには対応しない予定。「フルスペックを名乗るにふさわしい機動性を兼ね備えている」と自信を見せる。




バッテリーはどれくらいもつんだろう? さて、勝手からどうしようか???
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Italian Saint Stirs Up a Mix of Faith and Commerce
【The New York Timesより、以下転載】
The only visible parts of Padre Pio are his fingers, blackened now 40 years after he died. The palms, which once provoked sharp debates over how they came to be marked with the same wounds as Christ’s, are covered by his famous half gloves (replicas of which can be bought here for $8, or for $4.75, a Padre Pio snow globe).

The face is made of wax, a convincing likeness, gray beard and all.

“It left me breathless,” said Rosa Michitelli, 60, a nurse who as a girl attended Mass celebrated by Padre Pio, then a Capuchin monk suspected of fraud and self-promotion by the Vatican but since his canonization in 2002, Italy’s most revered saint. “It was just like when he was alive.”

Ms. Michitelli spoke just after seeing Padre Pio’s body, which was put on display here Thursday. She was one of the first.

Some 750,000 people have made reservations to see him between now and December — a testament to his enduring popularity, a thirst for something immediately spiritual that the Roman Catholic Church often does not provide and, it cannot be ignored, the need to expand tourism in a town that while attracting eight million visitors a year has too many hotels and not enough tourists who actually stay the night.

“This is an opportunity we have to turn religious tourism into mass tourism,” said Massimiliano Ostillio, who is in charge of tourism for the region of Puglia, which makes up the heel on Italy’s boot.

Occupancy rates for the 125 or so hotels in this town where Padre Pio lived for more than 50 years are the lowest in Italy, Mr. Ostillio said. He said he hoped that the large number of people expected to come to see Padre Pio might stay longer, then explore the rest of Puglia (not to mention possibly buy more Padre Pio thimbles, statues, key chains, rosaries, alarm clocks, plates and candles), just as visitors to the shrine of St. Francis in Assisi spill over into the surrounding region of Umbria.

Holy places are always like this, a mix of money and real devotion, more so in recent years in Europe as an aging population flocks to shrines like Lourdes in France and Medjugorje in Bosnia in ever larger numbers. They represent, many experts say, a sort of concrete spirituality — a sickness to be cured, a favor granted — all unbound by the institution of the church.

The church, said Antonio Socci, an Italian expert on Padre Pio, “is the world of the human, for good or for bad.”

“But in the case of saints, it is the tangible presence of God,” he added.

And so the church has often looked with suspicion on modern miracles and their workers, perhaps most so in the case of Padre Pio, born Francesco Forgione in 1887 in the small southern village of Pietrelcina. Around 1911, as a young and exceptionally devout priest, he wrote that he began to experience something disturbing.

“Last night something happened which I can neither explain nor understand,” he wrote to a friend. “In the middle of the palms of my hands a red mark appeared, about the size of a penny, accompanied by acute pain in the middle of the red marks.”

The wound spread to his feet and his side. Soon his stigmata became famous, attracting huge numbers of pilgrims and enough money that he eventually built a hospital that was once the biggest in southern Italy. Popes had various opinions of him, however, the harshest being John XXIII, who, a recent book contends, considered him a fraud and a womanizer. In 1960, the pope wrote of Padre Pio’s “immense deception.”

A Vatican doctor called him “an ignorant and self-mutilating psychopath who exploited people’s credulity.” Many suspected that his wounds were caused by carbolic acid, which, one recently unearthed document contends, he once ordered from a pharmacist.

But Pope John Paul II, who had confessed to him in the 1940s and who canonized more saints than any other pope, had a different view. He canonized Padre Pio, who died in 1968 at age 81, before what had been reported as one of the biggest crowds that had ever traveled to Rome.

Padre Pio, now officially St. Pio of Pietrelcina, has since been accepted by the Vatican, and the crowd here seemed to have no doubt about the legitimacy of his wounds. (He has been credited with other powers, like levitation and bi-location, the ability to be in two places at one time.)

“He was suffering,” Concetta Crescenzi, 65, who visited Padre Pio with a German friend in 1966, said during a Mass on Thursday that marked the opening of the crypt with Padre Pio’s body in the Church of Santa Maria delle Grazie. “He had blood coming out of his hands. If you saw it, you would believe it.”

With that, Brunella Pardini, 69, stood up from a chair nearby. “This is a demonstration of its truth!” she proclaimed, surveying the crowd that had come for the Mass. “Blessed are those who believe without seeing!”

The crowd, actually, may not have been the best test. Organizers and the Italian media expected a huge turnout — and no fewer than 16 satellite trucks were on hand to provide live coverage. But by no means all of the 10,000 seats that organizers set out were occupied. It was possible to get a sandwich at lunch, just a few yards from the sanctuary, without a wait.

“I thought you literally wouldn’t be able to walk,” said Brady White, an American actor and Padre Pio devotee who works part of the year doing Cartier commercials as a high-end Santa Claus and lives here the other part. “Maybe the Italians know to wait.”

In fact, several experts said they did not believe that the relatively small turnout represented any diminution of the popularity of Padre Pio, whose image protects gardens, restaurants and motor vehicles around Italy, especially in the south.

To see the body, reservations must be made — and the reserved tours do not start until Friday. Given the demographic of many Padre Pio devotees, which is to say thrifty pensioners, it seemed unlikely that they would come both for the Mass and then later to see the body.

And for those let in Thursday without reservations, the body itself was something to see.

When Padre Pio’s crypt was opened earlier this year, the head was described as partly skeletal, though the hands were reportedly in perfect shape, with no traces of stigmata. A wax mask was ordered from a London company that once supplied Madame Tussauds. The company’s employees worked entirely from photographs.

The result is spooky, his eyes closed and skin somewhere in complexion between life and death, in his brown monk’s robe and black slippers. It was, for many local residents, the same face they saw in 1968 when he died, a moment that did not end his veneration but, in some ways, put it on a more eternal trajectory.

“I felt my heart palpitating,” said Antonietta Ritrovato, 63, who first saw him when she was a child and attended his funeral. “He has performed so many miracles. He is a man who is just and saintly.”




さすがは、カトリックの国で今もなおエクソシストの需要が増える一方のイタリアだけのことはあります。あ~GW中、ヨーロッパ行きたかった!! 飛行機取れなかったもんなあ、残念(涙)。夏は是非、行きたいもんです。






スティグマータ 聖痕 <特別編>(1999年)
「聖遺物の世界」青山 吉信 山川出版社
オプス・デイ創立者、列聖へ  カトリック新聞
バチカン:前ローマ法王が「聖人」 列福調査を正式開始へ
「アッシジの聖堂壁画よ、よみがえれ」石鍋真澄著 小学館 感想1
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ローマ(AP) キリストが十字架にかけられた「聖痕」を手足に持っていたとされるイタリアの聖人ピオ神父の遺体が40年ぶりに掘り起こされ、24日からイタリア南部の教会で一般に公開される。






スティグマータ 聖痕 <特別編>(1999年)
「トマスによる福音書」荒井 献 講談社
「図説 キリスト教聖人文化事典」マルコム デイ 原書房
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Was Da Vinci's Mother a Slave?
【Discovery Channelより、以下転載】
April 9, 2008 -- Leonardo Da Vinci, regarded by many as the greatest genius of the Renaissance, was the son of a humble slave girl and had at least 21 half-siblings, according to compelling new evidence unveiled in Florence, Italy, on Wednesday.

Newly discovered documents published in two books ("Was Leonardo's Mother a Slave?" and "Leonardo's Family Tree," both edited by da Vinci scholars Agnese Sabato and Alessandro Vezzosi) have made it possible to reconstruct da Vinci's little-known family tree.

"Da Vinci's family was indeed a large one. His father Piero married not his mother, but four other women. His mother Caterina was married off to another man and had five children of her own. That's what you would call an enlarged family," Alessandro Vezzosi, director of the Museo Ideale in the Tuscan town of Vinci, told Discovery News.

Very little has been known about da Vinci's mother and the circumstances of his birth. The only account dates to a 1457 tax record in which the artist's grandfather listed the members of his family and briefly described his grandson:

"Lionardo, aged 5, the illegitimate child of Ser Piero and Caterina, who at present is married to Acchattabriga di Piero del Vaccha da Vinci."

Beyond this, scholars had very little to go on. While Ser Piero was easily identified as a Florentine notary, nothing was known about Caterina. As legend has it, she was a peasant girl from Vinci.

Now, 30-year-old research conducted by the late director of the Leonardo Library, published by his son Francesco, suggests a completely different scenario.

"Archival research has shown that there isn't any Caterina in Vinci or nearby villages that can be linked to Ser Piero. The only Caterina in Piero's life seems to be a slave girl who lived in the house of his wealthy friend Vanni di Niccolo di Ser Vanni," Cianchi wrote.

Evidence for "the slave Caterina" comes from Vanni's newly discovered will. The wealthy banker named his friend Ser Piero the executor of his will, and left most of his estate to a religious order. He left the slave girl to his wife Agnola and his Florentine house in via Ghibellina to Ser Piero.

"No official document for the liberation of Caterina exists, but something important must have happened at Vanni's death in 1451," Vezzosi said.

The man who would father Leonardo da Vinci did not move into his inherited home right away because Agnola, Vanni's widow, still lived there. It's likely, scholars now believe, that Ser Piero agreed to allow Agnola to remain in the house until she died in exchange for the slave girl Caterina's freedom.

Indeed, records show that Agnola hired a new servant after Vanni's death.

Meanwhile, no trace exists of the slave girl after 1451; she simply disappeared from documents. According to Cianchi's research, Ser Piero did not move into his inherited house until Agnola's death, but there are no records of other inhabitants in the home.

A few months later, on April 15, 1452, Leonardo was born in Vinci. It is known that his mother Caterina married Acchattabriga di Piero del Vaccha da Vinci only a few months after she gave birth.

"The hypothesis that it is the same Caterina that lived in Vanni's house is very strong," Vezzosi said.

The claim is supported by recent research suggesting the Italian genius was of Arabic descent, following analysis of his fingerprint.

"It was common in Renaissance Florence to own slaves from the Middle East and the Balkans. At the time of Leonardo's birth there were more than 550 slaves in Florence, meaning that all the wealthy families had slaves in their houses. The girls were baptized and renamed. The most popular names were Maria, Marta and Caterina," Agnese Sabato said.

If little is known about Caterina's life -- except that her husband might have had a temper (the name Acchattabriga means "ready to pick a quarrel" ) -- researchers have been able to draw a much clearer picture about the private life of Ser Piero.

"Documents tell us that just after Leonardo's birth, Ser Piero, who was about 26 years old, married a young girl named Albiera Amadori. He then married other three times," Elisabetta Ulivi, author of the book on da Vinci's family tree, said.

Ser Piero had at least 16 children -- eight of whom were born in the last 20 years of his life.

Da Vinci seemed to have had a difficult relationship with his half-sisters and brothers.

"Many of Leonardo's travels to Florence were indeed associated with family issues. He had several fights related to money and inheritance," Vezzosi said.








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New ‘Saint’ Series of Vatican Library Collection Silk Scarves available.
【Catholic Onlineより、以下転載】
BETHESDA, MD (FEBRUARY 7, 2008) - Digital Imaging Studios, has produced a new series of Vatican Library Collection scarves. The first series consisted of designs mainly from medieval floral manuscripts or from the Chigi Codex. These new designs were created from images of saints, such as St Jerome, St John, St Peter and the Apostles and the Holy Family. Several scarves were designed using images from the Bible of Nicolas III D'Este, created in the15th century. It is considered to be the most beautiful and most celebrated Lombard-Gothic Codex.

The Vatican Library's vast treasures make up one of the world's premiere collections of fine art and antiquities. Many of the images seen on the scarves have not been viewed outside the Vatican Library except by scholars and church officials since it was founded in 1451.

Each silk scarf comes with its own Certificate of Authenticity. No more than 100 of each design will be created. The scarves can be identified by a gold-colored “Vatican Library Collection” seal. This seal represents that the scarf has been sanctioned by the Vatican Library and its representatives “I learned about the lives of the saints by working on these scarves”, says Diana Medina, owner of Digital Imaging Studios. “The images on the scarves were originally painted in the mid 1300’s in some cases, but they depict the lives of saints at the start of Christianity. It was a very enlightening project.”

Considering the size of the Vatican Library collection, the scope of Digital Imaging Studio’s project utilizing images from the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana is remarkable as the Library is the oldest in existence and holds a rich repository of manuscripts, prints and antiquities as well as the largest ancient map and coin collection in the world, some dating back to the 2nd century A.D.

Available now at www.digitalimagingstudios.NET, these scarves offer exquisite reproductions of the treasures from the Vatican Library. The saints depicted are St John, St Jerome, the Holy Family, St Peter and the Apostles and the God of Creation.

う~ん、その辺がちょっと購入意欲をくすぐりますね! 詳しいデザインはここのサイトをご覧下さい。
Digital Imaging Studios

apostles11.jpg creation11.jpg

holyfamily.jpg stjerome_c.jpg

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'Da Vinci link' to chess drawings
Researchers believe early illustrations of how to play the game of chess, found in a long-lost Italian manuscript, may have been drawn by Leonardo da Vinci.

Da Vinci was a close friend of Italian mathematician and Franciscan friar Luca Pacioli, who wrote the manuscript.

Pacioli wrote the book - a collection of puzzles called "De ludo scacchorum" found in a private library last year - around the year 1500, experts say.

The puzzles are very similar to those found in daily newspapers today.

So far, three pages of the manuscript have been published, showing carefully drawn diagrams, each representing a possible chess scenario, to which Pacioli offered his solutions - checkmate in a set number of moves.

It was not the first of its kind, but one of the most striking things about it, aside from the practical demonstrations of the game, is the novelty and beauty of its illustrations.

The king, queen, bishop and knight are all represented by elegant and distinctive symbols, coloured in black and red ink; so finely drawn that it soon became clear these must be the hand of another artist.

Independent assessment

The researchers say they are confident these are the drawings of Leonardo and they have asked experts in the United States to make a second, independent assessment.

The manuscript was discovered last year among thousands of volumes in a private library in Gorizzia, north-east Italy.

Pacioli and Leonardo were working and collaborating on each other's works around the year 1500.

Leonardo is thought to have understood chess and maybe he even played it.

He made a reference to a technical term from the game in one of his many manuscripts.

This is thought to be the only surviving copy of the De ludo scacchorum.

And if it does indeed contain drawings by the hand of Leonardo, then of course, it will be priceless.





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Jews and the Vatican: A New Clash
Bringing back an ancient rite risked reopening ancient wounds. And so after Pope Benedict XVI introduced wider use of the old Latin rite last year, top Vatican officials promised to adjust a Good Friday prayer from the ancient liturgy that had called for the conversion of the Jews. The text of the updated version ― released this week in the Vatican newspaper L'Osservatore Romano ― deletes offensive language referring to Jews' "blindness" and the need to "remove the veil from their hearts." But the substance is left in place: "Let us pray for the Jews," the prayer says, according to an unofficial translation from Latin. "May the Lord our God illuminate their hearts so that they may recognize Jesus Christ savior of all men."

The wounds, according to top Jewish leaders and rabbis, have been reopened. They say the prayer, which in reality had never been scrapped completely, recalls past centuries of forced conversions and a lingering incomprehension of their faith. And while several well-known Jewish voices in New York and Jerusalem spoke of their "disappointment," the loudest ― and indeed angriest ― response to the revised text came from those closest to home. Late Wednesday, having had 24 hours to absorb the news and study the text, the Italian Rabbinical Assembly announced they were suspending the decades-long Jewish-Catholic dialogue for a "pause of reflection" in light of the Good Friday prayer.

Rome's chief Rabbi Riccardo Di Segni told reporters that the prayer brings Catholic-Jewish relations "back 43 years," noting that the 1960s Second Vatican Council had spoken of an "alliance" between the two faiths. Di Segni spoke indignantly about reassurances he said he'd received from Church leaders that his concerns about the conversion language would have been addressed. It raises questions about just what is the "image of the Jewish people for the Church," said Di Segni. "It's an old question: What are the Jews doing here on earth? If this [prayer] is the requirement for dialogue, it is intolerable. Evidently, the Church is having problems rediscovering the foundations of its orthodoxy."

Cardinal Walter Kasper, the Vatican's pointbman on Catholic-Jewish relations, responded to the criticism in a Thursday morning interview on Vatican radio. He said great progress has been made in interfaith dialogue with Jews, but it requires that "we respect each other's diversity." "We have much in common, but there's a specific difference. Jesus is the Christ, that means the Messiah, the son of God, and you cannot hide this difference. The Holy Father wanted to say: Yes, Jesus Christ is the Savior of all men, including the Jews. This is said in the prayer," Kasper said. "But this does not mean we have the intention of evangelizing [Jews]. We must give witness to our faith. But in the past the language was with disrespect. Now there is respect."

Huge steps forward have in fact been made since the days that Catholics blamed Jews for Jesus' death, and when the original Good Friday conversion prayer spoke of the "perfidious Jews." Pope John XXIII and Pope Paul VI began to rewrite Catholic teachings, paving the way for John Paul II's historic outreach to Jews, including visits to the central synagogue in Rome and the Wailing Wall in Jerusalem, and his characterization of the People of Israel as "older brothers" to Christians.

Reached in his office in Jerusalem, Rabbi David Rosen of the American Jewish Committee, a veteran of Catholic-Jewish dialogue, said that he too had his "hopes raised" that an explicit reference to conversion would have been excised. Rosen noted that the expansion of the Latin rite "had nothing to do with this prayer, and nothing to do with the Jews," but was rather an attempt by the Pope to mend fences with Catholic arch-traditionalists. Still, the language of the Good Friday prayer sounds to Jews to be "exclusivist and triumphalist," said the rabbi.

Rosen, who has worked with Benedict since he was a Vatican cardinal, said he worries that the Pope seems to "insulate" himself from top advisers who might alert him to potential fallout. Still, Rosen called his Italian rabbinical colleagues' break in dialogue with Catholics a "rash" decision. "There's so much at stake for Jews and Catholics and Benedict himself that we must ensure that this difficulty will not torpedo the commitment to advancing Jewish-Catholic relations," Rosen said. "Yes, we must speak up. But there is nothing to be gained from making this a casus belli." With reporting by Francesco Peloso/Rome 





ラテン語ミサ典書が復活 保守色を深めるローマ法王ベネディクト16世
posted by alice-room at 22:34| Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | 【ニュース記事B】 | 更新情報をチェックする



MicrosoftはWindows XPを搭載した100ドルノートPC「XO」のフィールドテストを進めている。登場は年内になりそうだ。

 米Microsoftは、Windows XP SP2の改変版がOne Laptop Per Child(OLPC)プロジェクトのXOマシンで機能し、優れた体験で顧客をサポートできるようにするためのフィールドテストを実施している。

 「これまでXOマシンでのWindowsの動作を見た感じでは期待が持てる。フィールドテストは1月末に始まり、OSイメージを縮小したカスタマイズ版のWindows XP SP2を搭載したXOマシン約200台で行っている」とMicrosoftのUnlimited Potential部門上級副社長オーランド・アヤラ氏はeWEEKに語った。

 Unlimited Potentialチームは、Windows XPがXOで問題なく機能するようにする作業を担当している。都度払い方式のWindowsとOfficeのトライアルや、Windows Starter Editionも手掛けている。







 XOにはSDスロットが1基装備されているので、WindowsとOfficeを2GバイトのSDカードに格納してXOで使うことはできる。XOはLinuxベースのSugar OSで動いている。


 フィールドテストが成功した場合に、いつWindows XPを搭載したXOが登場するかを同氏は明らかにしなかったが、年内の可能性が高い。




でももうちょい我慢すれば、2万円以下でモバイルPC買える時代が来るのかな? そうなったら嬉しいな♪ 夏ぐらいまでに出てくれたら、もう最高なんですけど・・・。

Asus Eee 2G Surf 7" Micro Laptop PC売ってよ~(涙)
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